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INFERNO Of CHOICES : MARGINAL EVENTS , ANATOMY , SOURCE , COURSE of MASSACRE IN JEDWABNE ,10 July 1941

Marian Baginski|Thursday, May 15, 2014

“ The Jedwabne pogrom (pronounced [jɛdˈvabnɛ]) of July 1941 during German occupation of Poland, was a massacre (pogrom) of at least 340 Polish Jews,[1] of all ages. These are the official findings of the Institute of National Remembrance, "confirmed by the number of victims in the two graves, according to the estimate of the archeological and anthropological team participating in the exhumation,"[2] wrote prosecutor Radosław J. Ignatiew, who headed an investigation in 2000–2003 ordered by the Polish government.[3]


 INFERNO Of CHOICES : MARGINAL  EVENTS , ANATOMY , SOURCE , COURSE of   MASSACRE  IN JEDWABNE ,10 July 1941 Main text  PART ONE  1. WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT JEDWABNE UP TO NOW:    This is Wikipedia approach to our Question: What really happened in Jedwabne on July 10.1941. All these research, suppositions, perceptions, innuendos, incorrect statements, political propaganda contained here   started unprecedented uproar   by the Publication of Neighbors of Jan Tomasz Gross. What we can find in Wikipedia is fallowing: 1.       “ The Jedwabne pogrom (pronounced [jɛdˈvabnɛ]) of July 1941 during German occupation of Poland, was a massacre (pogrom) of at least 340 Polish Jews,[1] of all ages. These are the official findings of the Institute of National Remembrance, "confirmed by the number of victims in the two graves, according to the estimate of the archeological and anthropological team participating in the exhumation,"[2] wrote prosecutor Radosław J. Ignatiew, who headed an investigation in 2000–2003 ordered by the Polish government.[3] 2.A treason and murder trial was launched by the Communist People's Republic of Poland in 1949, which was later condemned as a miscarriage of justice, because suspects had been tortured during interrogation.[4] After a fresh investigation concluded in 2003, the Polish Institute of National Remembrance stated the crime was committed by Polish inhabitants of the town,[5] with the complicity of Nazi German Ordnungspolizei. The involvement of German paramilitary forces of the SS and Gestapo remains the subject of debate, especially the role of Nazi German Einsatzgruppe Zichenau-Schroettersburg.[6][7][8][9] According to some later commentators, many people were shocked by the findings, which contrast with the rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust.[10][11][12] Background The Jewish community in Jedwabne was established in the 18th century.[13] According to the 1921 census, the town had a Jewish community consisting of 757 people, or 61.9 percent of its total population, following Poland's return to independence.[14] It was a typical shtetl, a small town with a very significant Jewish community, one of many such towns in prewar Poland.The start of World War II in Europe began with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany. Likewise, on September 17, 1939, the Soviet Red Army invaded the eastern regions of Poland while in secret agreement with Germany.[15][16] The area of Jedwabne was originally occupied by the Germans who crushed Polish resistance being offered by local Polish cadets. Jedwabne was then transferred  to the Soviets in accordance with the September 28, 1939, German–Soviet Boundary Treaty. As soon as the Soviets entered Jedwabne, the local Polish government was dismantled. At first, many Polish Jews were relieved to learn that the Soviets, rather than the Nazis, were to occupy their town, and unlike gentile Poles, publicly welcomed the Red Army as their protector.[9][17] Some people from other ethnic groups in Kresy, particularly Belarusians, also openly welcomed the Soviets.[17] Administrative jobs were offered to Jews who declared Soviet allegiance. Some Jews joined a Soviet militia overseeing deportations organized by the NKVD. At least one witness testimony says that during round-ups, armed Jewish militiamen were seen to be guarding those prepared for deportation to Siberia. A total of 22,353 Poles (entire families) were deported from the vicinity.[18][19] Red Army troops requisitioned food and other goods, undercutting nearly everyone's material needs.[9] The Soviet secret police accompanying the Red Army routinely arrested and deported Polish citizens - both gentile and Jewish - spreading terror throughout the region.[7][20] Waves of arrests, expulsions and prison executions continued until June 20–21, 1941.[9]Following Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, the German forces quickly overran the territory of Poland which had been occupied by the Soviets since 1939. The small town of Wizna near Jedwabne saw several dozen Jewish men shot by the invading Germans under Hauptsturmführer Hermann Schaper, as did other neighboring towns.[21] The Nazis distributed propaganda in the area,[22] revealing crimes committed by the Soviets in Eastern Poland and saying that Jews might have supported them. In parallel, the SS organized special Einsatzgruppen ("task forces") to murder Jews in these areas and a few massacres were carried out. The guidelines for such massacres were formulated by Reinhard Heydrich,[23] who ordered his officers to induce anti-Jewish incidents on territories newly occupied by the German forces.[24] Local communities were encouraged to commit anti-Jewish pogroms and robberies with total impunity.[25][26] http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/1941_atrocity_in_Jedwabne_%28map%29.jpg/330px-1941_atrocity_in_Jedwabne_%28map%29.jpg http://bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.24wmf1/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png  Mape showing the World War II atrocity  in Jedwabne. Map of the crime scene compiled on the basis of court documents, Poland. The march of the Jews to the barn of Bronisław Śleszyński marked in red On the morning of July 10, 1941, by the order of mayor Marian Karolak and the town's German gendarmerie,[27] a group of Polish men from around Jedwabne and neighboring settlements was assembled,[28] who then rounded up the local Jews as well as those seeking refuge from nearby towns and villages such as Wizna and Kolno. The Jews were taken to the square in the centre of Jedwabne, where they were ordered to pluck grass, attacked and beaten. A group of Jewish men were forced by the Nazis to demolish a statue of Lenin that had been put up earlier by the Soviets (as in Kolno),[29][30] and then carry it out of town while singing Soviet songs. The local rabbi was forced to lead this procession of about 40 people. The group was taken to a pre-emptied barn,[18] killed and buried along with fragments of the monument, while most of the remaining Jews, estimated at around 250[18] to 300 (IPN final findings),[31] including many women and children, were led to the same barn later that day, locked inside and burned alive using kerosene from the former Soviet supplies (or German gasoline, by different accounts) in the presence of eight German gendarmes, who shot those who tried to escape.[18] The remains of both groups were buried in two mass graves in the barn.[18] Exhumations led to the discovery not only of the charred bodies of the victims in two mass graves, but also of the bust of Lenin (previously assumed to be buried at a Jewish cemetery) as well as bullets that according to a 2000 statement by Leon Kieres, the chief of the IPN, could have been fired from 1941 Walther P38 type pistols.[18] German photographers, seen by many witnesses, photographed the pogrom. Some sources claim that a movie made by Germans during the massacre was shown in cinemas in Warsaw to document the alleged spontaneous hatred of local people towards the Jews. No trace of such a movie has been found.[32] 1949–1950 trials After the war ended, in 1949 and 1950, the authorities of the People's Republic of Poland arrested and interrogated a number of suspects from or around the town of Jedwabne, accused of collaboration with the Nazis in committing the crime and put them on trial. Of 22 defendants, 12 were convicted of treason against Poland and one person was condemned to death.[27] Records show that the use of extreme physical torture during pre-trial interrogations conducted by the Security Office (UB) resulted in some individuals admitting to made-up crimes, which they later renounced before the courts. Among those who (at trial) retracted their earlier statements given during prolonged beatings by the security service were Józef Chrzanowski, Marian Żyluk, Czesław Laudański, Wincenty Gościcki, Roman and Jan Zawadzki, Aleksander and Franciszek Łojewski, Eugeniusz Śliwecki, Stanisław Sielawa and several other local men pronounced innocent and released by the courts without recompense. Out of 22 indicted for the crime at the time, almost half were wrongfully accused.[27] The unlawful interrogation methods were confirmed by the minister of Public Security Stanisław Radkiewicz, who admitted in an internal memo that the "fixing" of the investigation included beatings, the complete omission of circumstances and evidence, and the rephrasing of testimonies to aid prosecution in a way that did not reflect reality.[4] None of the Polish people who rescued Jews in Jedwabne were contacted, and no attempts were made to establish the names of the victims. There was no police search for the mayor, Marian Karolak, who had vanished, and no effort to name the German units present at the time. The courts however confirmed that the defendants' participation had been prompted by threats and acts of physical violence by the German police.[33] http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ea/Jedwabne_Z-pomnik.jpg/220px-Jedwabne_Z-pomnik.jpg http://bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.24wmf1/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png  Massacre memorial in Jedwabne German investigation of 1960–1974 Upon the outbreak of war between Germany and the USSR, Reinhard Heydrich ordered his security forces to "cleanse" the border areas of Jews which led to formation of additional Einsatzkommandos. He instructed Nebe to organize pogroms (i.e. "self-cleansing") in the Bezirk Bialystok district, inspired by the warm welcome received from the Poles, when they chased out the Soviets along with their NKVD collaborators. Nebe oriented his commanders including Birkner on their new duty on July 2 and 3,[34] but cautioned that the SS should leave "no trace" of its involvement in the pogroms.[35] SS-Hauptsturmführer Wolfgang Birkner was  investigated by the West German prosecutors in 1960, suspected in the 1941 massacres of Jews in Jedwabne, Radziłów, and Wąsosz nearby. The charges were based on research of Szymon Datner, head of the Białystok branch of the Central Committee of Polish Jews (CŻKH). The German prosecutors found no hard evidence implicating Birkner, but in the course of their investigation discovered new German witness, SS Kreiskommissar of Łomża, who named the Gestapo paramilitary Einsatzgruppe B under SS-Obersturmführer Hermann Schaper deployed in the area. The methods used by Schaper's death squad in the Radziłów massacre were identical to those employed in Jedwabne only three days later suggesting their specific involvement in that pogrom also. "The evidence collected by the West Germans, including the positive identification of Schaper by witnesses from Łomża, Tykocin, and Radziłów, suggested that it was indeed Schaper's men who carried out the killings in those locations. Investigators also suspected, based on the similarity of the methods used to destroy the Jewish communities of Radziłów, Tykocin, Rutki, Zambrów, Jedwabne, Piątnica and Wizna between July and September 1941 that Schaper's men were the perpetrators." — Alexander B. Rossino[36] During the subsequent German investigation at Ludwigsburg in 1964, Hermann Schaper lied to interrogators that in 1941 he had been a truck driver. Legal proceedings against the accused were terminated on September 2, 1965. However, Schaper's case was reopened in 1974. During the second investigation, Count van der Groeben testified that it was indeed Schaper who conducted mass executions of Jews in his district. In 1976 a German court in Giessen (Hessen), pronounced Schaper guilty of executions of Poles and Jews by the kommando SS Zichenau-Schröttersburg. Schaper was sentenced to six-years imprisonment, but was soon released for medical reasons.[37] According to German federal prosecutors, the documentation of his investigation is no longer available and, it has most likely been destroyed. Looking on the Bibiography , the research was tottaly unprecedented in the history of the massacre of 200-300 people. There in no other place so investigated and written about, like Jedwabne. It was natural and abvious that ,Polish Autorities  started its own investigation by IPN( Institute of National Rememberance).  B.Official IPN investigation, 2000–2003  Let’s give a voice to Wilkipedia once again “The Polish Parliament ordered a brand new investigation into the Jedwabne atrocity in July 2000, and entrusted the Institute of National Remembrance with transmitting their findings for possible legal action. The Polish Institute of National Remembrance (Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, IPN), was then a recently created independent successor to the Commission for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland, formed only after the collapse of the Soviet empire. Its major role was the promotion of historical research on topics banned for over 40 years already, during the 1945–1989 period of Communist rule; including anti-Semitic pogroms in Soviet-occupied Poland. As its first project, the IPN commenced an investigation of the Jedwabne pogrom in response to a heated debate among leading historians, which followed the publication of Sąsiedzi (Neighbors) by the Polish-American historian Jan T. Gross first in the Polish-language.[38][39] His book gave impetus to the investigation, even though the first scholarly analisis containing similar conclusions has already been published as far back as December 1966 by Szymon Datner in the Białystok bulletin of ŻIH (No 60), followed by a brief 1976 inquiry aided by German authorities.[38][40] Proceedings The IPN interviewed some 111 witnesses over the course of two years, mainly from Poland, but also from Israel and the United States.38] One-third of the IPN witnesses had been eyewitnesses of some part of the 1941 pogrom. Since the event had occurred 59 years earlier when most of the survivors still living today were children, their recollections varied. IPN searched for, and examined documents in Polish archives in Warsaw, Białystok and Łomża; in German archives, and at Yad Vashem in Israel. In May–June 2001 IPN conducted a partial exhumation at the site of the barn where the largest group of Jewish victims perished. The scope of the exhumation was strictly limited by religious objections against disturbing the remains of the dead, embodied in Jewish religious doctrine. The IPN forensic examiner, based on a similar exhumation at Katyn where Stalin’s aides had murdered 22,000 Polish prisoners-of-war in 1940, estimated that the burial site in Jedwabne contained between 300 and 400 victims.[41] Leon Kieres, the President of IPN, also met in New York with Rabbi Jacob Baker,[42] formerly Yaakov Eliezer Piekarz, who had emigrated in 1938 from Jedwabne to the United States. In January 2001, during his visit to New York, Kieres made public that IPN had accumulated enough evidence to confirm that a group of Poles were indeed perpetrators in the Jedwabne massacre. The IPN evidence was subsequently presented in reports by IPN to the Polish Parliament and in various other public statements.[18]While the IPN investigation continued for two more years, as of early 2001 the IPN finding of Polish involvement in the Jedwabne massacre was public knowledge in Poland. IPN Final Findings, 2002–2003 On July 9, 2002, IPN released the Final Findings of its two-year-long investigation.[43] In a carefully worded summary (quoted by Polonsky),[44] IPN stated its principal conclusions as follows:
  • The perpetrators of the crime sensu stricto were Polish inhabitants of Jedwabne and its environs; responsibility for the crime sensu largo could be ascribed to the Germans. IPN found that Poles played a ‘decisive role’ in the massacre, but the massacre was ‘inspired by the Germans’. The massacre was carried out in full view of the Germans, who were armed and had control of the town, and the Germans refused to intervene and halt the killings. IPN wrote: “The presence of German military policemen.....and other uniformed Germans.....was tantamount to consent to, and tolerance of the crime.”
  • At least 340 Jewish victims were killed in the pogrom, in two groups of which the first contained 40 to 50 people, and the second group contained about 300. The exact number of victims could not be determined. The figure of 1,600 or so victims (cited in ‘Neighbors’) was “highly unlikely, and was not confirmed in the course of the investigation.”
  • “At least forty (Polish) men” were perpetrators of the crime. As for the remainder of Jedwabne’s population, IPN deplored “the passive behavior of the majority of the town’s population in the face of the crime.” However, IPN’s finding of ‘utter passivity’ shown by the majority of Jedwabne’s population is very different from the statement on page 7 of ‘Neighbors’ that “half of the population of the town murdered the other half.” The majority of Jedwabne residents were “utterly passive,” IPN found, and they did not participate in the pogrom.
  • A number of witnesses had testified that the Germans drove the group of Jewish victims from Jedwabne’s town square to the barn where they were killed (these testimonies are found in the expanded 203-page ‘Findings’ published in June 2003). IPN could neither conclusively prove nor disprove these accounts. “Witness testimonies vary considerably on this question.”
  • “A certain group of Jewish people survived” the massacre. Several dozen Jews, or according to several sources approximately one hundred Jews, lived in a ghetto in Jedwabne until November 1942, when the Jews were transferred by the Germans to a ghetto in Lomza, and eventually died in Treblinka. The seven Jews hidden by the Wyrzykowski family were not the only survivors.
A greatly expanded version of the Findings, in 203 pages of Polish text, was issued by the IPN on June 30, 2003. The original version from July 9, 2002, appears as the concluding five pages of this document. Pages 60 through 160 contain summaries of the testimonies of numerous witnesses interviewed by IPN. The full 203-page Polish text detailing government-led investigation was published on the IPN website.[41] It was supplemented with the publication of two volumes of studies and documents concerning the Jedwabne pogrom entitled Wokół Jedwabnego, Vol.1 'Studies' (525 pages) and Vol.2 'Documents' (1,034 pages) available in Polish.[45]” On June 30, 2003, prosecutor Radosław J. Ignatiew announced that the investigation of "the mass murder of at least 340 Polish citizens of Jewish nationality in Jedwabne on July 10, 1941" had discovered no living suspected perpetrators in the Jedwabne atrocity who had not already been brought to justice, and hence the IPN investigation was now closed.[46] Jan T. Gross himself praised the conduct of the IPN investigation.[47][48]. Similtanuasely,  Leon Kieres, the President of IPN, also met in New York with Rabbi Jacob Baker,(42) formerly Yaakov Eliezer Piekarz, who had emigrated in 1938 from Jedwabne to the United States. In January 2001, during his visit to New York, Kieres made public that IPN had accumulated enough evidence to confirm that a group of Poles were indeed perpetrators in the Jedwabne massacre. The IPN evidence was subsequently presented in reports by IPN to the Polish Parliament and in various other public statements(18). While the IPN investigation continued for two more years, as of early 2001 the IPN finding of Polish involvement in the Jedwabne massacre was public knowledge in Poland. This was a first criminal investigation conducted by newely created IPN.       It was unnormous political pressure on Leon Kieres, the President of IPN at that time ., He  met in New York  Rabbi Jacob Baker, (42)whose name before was: f Yaakov Eliezer Piekarz,.  Piekarz had immigrated in 1938 from Jedwabne to the United States. In January 2001, during his visit to New York, Kieres made public that IPN had accumulated enough evidence to confirm that a group of Poles were indeed perpetrators in the Jedwabne massacre.  Unfortunately, The IPN evidence was subsequently presented in reports by IPN to the Polish Parliament and in various other public statements, before conclusion and haisty closure. While the IPN investigation was  continuing  for two more years up to 2003.  In  2001 the IPN finding of Polish involvement in the Jedwabne massacre was public knowledge in Poland. After fourteen years of research, Polish Authorities statements, films produced about Jedwabne, theatrical plays, thousands of articles and different opinions are we close to the  truth  as stated by  Edmund Dimitrow: ”In fact, however, not so much we went deep in the mystery of the past, how much we dig up and to put in light the stories have long been known to indigent people, but for various reasons, hidden, put under the table, doomed some times to obscurity or presented in accordance with the truth” ( interview with  Pyzowska form Wyborcza in 2011). It is an over all statement of the researcher   about the Massacre’ Jedwabne  representing  one wing of the  perception of this tragic  event.       But ,my statement  what happened  in  Jedwabne on 10 July 1941 is not as a hypothesis : The findings of the witnesses during the trial in Lomza , findings issued in  judgments on Schaper in Germany, the activity of his group in Lomza , abundant literature, witnesses , partial exhumation my own guesses based on the realities of small-town life ,  my own understanding of their   psyche of those people , it   proves with any shed of doubt  that  the Jedwabne massacre was perpetrated  by  Germans themselves ,made ​​with the participation of the German gendarmerie partly Polish origin , and some ,or other dozens  individuals having  settle the accounts with the  Jews. They came from or are coming from marginalized group of “Hooligans” and did it to be remarked   in eyes of Germans. And at the same time I try to respond comprehensively to any doubt, as some obvious explanation, which seems to be simple for singular events and facts. All the dots are put to correct and   to correlate  al the actual course of the massacre.”    For that matter this  is  also the statement from  IPN investigation:" Recognizing , therefore , the materials of evidence in the files of  Lomza process have not been manipulated and in fairness the data they contain must accept the consequences of the  Polish  civilians were significant perpetrators  taking part in the  events  of  July 10, 1941 " p 200 IPN
" While the process in Lomza requires  critical approach and assessment of neglect  how  it  was run ( such  appraisal was made ​​previously in the text above) , it is however allow  us its findings on the testimony of witnesses  critical approach  to  this complex investigation , which  pointed to the large presence of uniformed and armed Germans in Jedwabne on July 10, 1941 . , as their perpetrated accomplices  at all stages of making the crime.  For that reason   the hypothesis that massacre in Jedwabne was Germans’ executed without the participation of the Poles or forcing them to participate a dozen or so residents of Jedwabne should be considered unproven "(p. 201 IPN ruling.) 2. Different massacre stories approach a. Jan Tomasz Gross approach to Massacre    The most popularized version of the massacre in Jedwabne, and the most fantastic, detached from reality, full of presumptions, of controversial Comments, suggestions, insinuations, and vast implications, or bizarre narrative historiosophical was written by Jan Tomasz Gross.
The author wanted to prove that the murder of the Jewish citizens in Jedwabne was a spontaneous nature made event  ​​by the Polish “society “or community. In the heat of relying on the absent witnesses in Jedwabne at the time of massacre, unsigned testimony, as well as of gender confusion, Gross “forgot" that even it was German occupation at the time of tragic events. Although there somewhere as he stated Germans stood as passive observers, probably photographing murdering Poles. But as a dreamer, he ruled out the possibility of terrorizing   by Germans of some Poles admitting to court as unwilling participants in the anti-Jewish actions.
Gross said at the same time, that just after the second invasion by the Germans in the discussed areas Inhabitants of Jedwabne “constituted themselves “. The city of Jedwabne had some social ensemble consisting of a “city councilors." That's what these authorities planned and devised this massacre. In accordance with its only known theory, Gross suggested the existence the conspiracy of Polish local authority in Jedwabne against Jewish inhabitants of little town. . In his book, he also argued about parity in decision making process, between German Nazis and the “Poles”. In addition, the mayor and his “city council”, they   went in an agreement with Germans and the direct Polish organizers of Jedwabne massacre. “His revelations on this topic made ​​an impression so that the reader can be swayed in to conviction that this massacre was so cruel, there were no survivors.

Gross pointed out in many places and seems to have epiphany that the Soviets did not collaborate, even in a minimal part with the Jewish community in Jedwabne. The Jews, in fact, according to Gross were the main victims of the soviet communists, even almost   forgetting   the Soviets existence in Jedwabne. He suggested, moreover, that the situation in the town after the return of the Red Army in 1945 had little, if at all any, effect on the subsequent judicial process in   1949 alleged perpetrators, or co-participants in the murder. In the heat of admiration for the rule of law, he rejected even the probability of the impact of the Stalinist interrogation techniques on the content of “the testimony of the accused." For Gross, at this same time, there were no issues:  the German legal acts issued earlier, before the 10th July 1941, or   theorized “settling “the Jewish question.  Decree issued by PKWN in August 1944 was not that controversial, it was mostly a tool to prosecute so called political enemies of the imposed soviet regime in occupied Poland. Finally, proposed a priori treatment of  testimonies of survivors ,the massacre of the Jews, is accepted  as dogma , which is certainly a unique and unparalleled anywhere postulate research methodology appropriate only and exclusively  for  Gross.
After nearly 14- years, the release of the Gross’s stories about Jedwabne, the marginal type of different statements on this subject, as also tracking the discussions on the internet, or in political circles, I will try to correct both primary revelations showed by Jan Tomasz Gross,   and his” deus ex machina” arguments in alleged participation on Polish nation in the massacre of Jews.  I would show how J.T. Gross and his followers circumvent some of the important facts and details and influence political implications. Also, as shown before, Gross tries to show a love to marginal   pathological events in the Jedwabne story. In this endeavor, the  undivided  attention  should be given to some  books and serious researches contributing to  find the rooted causes and what happened in Jedwabne on July 10 1941., as well as, to be close and to familiarize  the reader  with the understanding and factual  answer to the question : What happened  in Jedwabne on 10  July 1,941 ?.  It sound worth to remark that, at the beginning of discussion  Gross’s thoughts, some of his critics suggested that he did not mean to present Massacre in Jedwabne as historical event, but rather he created the story about Jedwabne and   he wanted to illustrate his historiosophical considerations. This approach is rather wishful thinking than the reality. b. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz research about massacre in Jedwabne   First serious answer to the Gross’s confabulations is research done by Mark Jan Chodakiewicz: The Massacre in Jedwabne July, 10.1941, Columbia University, 2005.  So far this is only book, as of now on the market considered to be close to the reality and showing the course of events in Jedwabne on that day. Some shortcomings are not necessarily the fault of the author. They are like:  The lack of all available conversations and testimonies of direct living witnesses of the event,   The question or, bypassing  the trauma of 1920 (destroyed Jedwabne) World War I. No showing the trauma.  Events in Bialystok- a distant about 120 km from Jedwabne - the communist regime was installed shortly there, as well as presence of communist government prepared for Warsaw in 1920 before this famous battle.    Prof. Chodakiewicz did not   mention in full ,  a partial exhumation of the murder site as well as  ( he omitted , or not to be able) , the effort to reach  for the archives Oberkomando’s in Ciechanow presently probably located in the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and seems to be inaccessible to researchers.  He underscored the basics: the size of the barn 19 metrs by 7.5 meters (62,4 by  26 feet). Tere were two grave :one inside the barn size 5 by 2.5 meters deep 0.6 meter(16”/7’) . It contained the  bodys 0.2 meter  from the surface. The bodies belonged to men. The grave was partially fieled . On the top was a statue of Lenin with some evidence of partial exposure to the fire , as well as the uplevel of bodies. These bodies were layed in a reather orderly fassion. The grave outside the barn was next to it and  measured  24’by 8.2” and deep 1.3 meter. It was field with the bodies of men, women, children in rater unoderly fasion. The bodies started to show in 0.5 meter from the surface. The bodies were rather disintegrated and had visible marks of heat. This was never mentioned in details during the court proceedings.  The Omission of this basic error in  the court proceedings  of the 1949 regarding this murder in Jedwabne,or  it was said that the murder took place on  ​​June 25, 1941 ( there were at list two murders of Soviet collaborators on this day), and not the 10th of July 1941.
(Although we know that on the 25th of June at last two persons were killed: Kropniewnicki and Kobrzyniecki - one Jew, one Pole).  It is curiosum sui generis, not to pay attention to such facts as presence or Heinrych, Goring (4-th July in Lomza presence), Himmler on July 3-10 1941 in Bialystok and Lomza, or to pay closer attention to the murder weapons (sticks, pull hangers).  Prof. Chodakiewicz paid attention to the political spectrum in Jedwabne between the World Wars, but he missed the opportunity  to examine in detail  the existence of Pilsudski monument in Jedwabne and, its alleged destruction by Soviets after September 22.1939, and instead, installation of Lenin’s head during the Soviet occupation 1939-1941. Insignificant event for many, but enrage for few. . Probably unwillingly, Professor Chodakiewicz falls into trap of the narrative indicating arrival of farmers and peasants to Jedwabne on Thursday morning allegedly to take part in the projected massacre. Sorry, Professor, these farmers were present there since Wednesday morning taking part in the market activities: to sell, to bay, to exchange ,to trade , to meet quittances, or simply to learn about latest news  and events  of these days. Unfortunately, they could not leave Jedwabne in the late afternoon this day due to the curfew imposed by German occupiers. As this same, Prof. Chodakiewicz did not mention the return on 22 and 23(?) of June 1941 from Lomza prison, the people, who were destined to be sent to Siberia.  When they came to their homes and living quarters they found Jews occupying their houses.  He did not mention at all, the " Thermopylae " close to  Wizna where  about  seven hundred  soldiers withstood  40 - thousands of Guaderian 's army near  Strękowa Gora  and blocked for four days  its march on Warsaw .   Recently in his translation into Polish, JM Chodakiewicz did not have taken into account these alleged deficiencies. (I do not have access to that translation, but I know that this translation applies only to the contents of the said English-language edition).    c. Andrzej Zbikowski about  Jedwabne’s Origin of massacre.  Next book, worth studying is: Andrzej Zbikowski towards the genesis of Jedwabne. Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw, 2006.  Unfortunately, despite many  important assets presented  and  important documentation ,  as well as some times good analysis ,  many factual  data , despite that  the author falls into the Jewish narrative of Jews’ sufferings from wrongs of Polish citizens  , where killing of a Jew –who was  a  traitor ,  blackmailer , foreign spy, denouncer,  person murdering   other Jew is considered as  ,  alleged act anysemitism.  According to  Andrzej Zbikowski:"Usually , historians are advocates of the Community, whom they identify with  , They  also take  a duty to  store  memory  of their own ancestors , and  the “ harm” done to  theirs hurts more than  to the “strangers." (P.20). Zbikowski’s alleged complaints about anti-Semitism should be put into prospective considered in the next paragraph. No
    Such an approach to the problem according to Zbikowski makes him “free” of thinking that the patriotism of Jews toward Poland is not worth to discuss.  He emphatically stated “This little discussion is not worth and does nothing to our knowledge of the realities of the occupation.” (ibid.). Did it really?
The period of 1944 and after , when  due to the August decree of1944 edited by PKWN  10000-to 15000 judicial killings  of Poles, 20000-to30000 political prisoners, 600000 sent to concentration camps in The Soviet Union , or camps present on Polish soil , including Auschwitz.5. The separate problem would be the destruction of mainly polish intelligence in period 1939-1956 about 200000 to 300000 by Germans Soviets, Soviets regime in Poland, not to mention annihilation 80000 to 150000 of Poles and its leathers in 1836-1939 on the Ukrainian and Belarusian territories.  A complaint about lack of sufficient literature on the subject of Polish-Jewish relations is rather of mark. At that time and after these   Relations were considered in terms of implementing second soviet occupation and domination. And dominant narrative at that time was: Jews internationalists, reaktioneers, or Zionists. And fight between these fractions. Zbikowski’s alleged complaints about anti-Semitism should be put into that prospective and considered    an available literature.  In that context should be placed (in 1961) Mazowiecki‘s (Jewish name….) complaint about “porzadny czlowiek, chciaz Zyd – his writing about anti-Semitism. By this article he touched the core of antyJdaism (not anti-Semitism). First you see and experiment moral attitude, conduct, value system and later you take into consideration the eventual nationality of the person. Antyjudaism has to be considered in the terms of moral values and attitudes not in terms of nationality, like Jews wanted.  Valuable insides of this question can be found in:  After massacre, Marek Jan Chodakiewicz. Warszawa 2008.and others.  d. Anna Bikont, “We from Jedwabne”   As Anna Biking indicated in his book, "We from Jedwabne”, I would pointed out a little known controversial competition between Polish and Jewish businesses. This struggle between the owners of Polish interests and their Jewish competitors were allegedly financed as Bikont has stated by American interests. She attempted to familiraz4e the read on the personal lave. Making interviews all over the world with saved Jewish only victims from murders, as well as interviewing Jews, who left Jedwabne before the World War II.   She even presented the particular map of Jedwabne from 1939 putting the Jewish homes and living quarters between the Christian (Polish) households, indicating her omissions and lack of knowledge about nature of the homes and soil ownership in Jedwabne. She even attempted to put the list of victims killed in the Massacre.  At this same time willingly, or not she failed in a trap of the Jewish narrative about restitution and Jewish ownership of the properties. She is a classical example to have reinvented her and going back to the Jewish roots being born as Polish.  Alleged identity crisis observed recently in many cases.    3. IPN AND MASSACRE IN JEDWABNE  Next book worth to note, and containing the abundance of many IPN materials was published as: Around Jedwabne “. Warsaw, 2002 IPN (TWO volumes). Wokół Jedwabnego, 2 Vols (525 pp. and 1034 pp.) in Polish, is the official IPN publication presenting documents produced by the 2000-2003 IPN investigation. Volume 1, 'Studies' (525 pages) contains historical and legal studies written by historians working for IPN. Vol.2 'Documents' (1,034 pages) contains original documents collected by the IPN investigation. Included are testimonies by Jews on various anti-Semitic acts by Poles, as well as testimonies by Polish schoolteachers deported to Siberia who reported that Jewish Communists moved into positions of authority in the Soviet occupation apparatus. Volume 2 includes a Polish translation (from Hebrew) of a remarkable memoir written by Chaya Finkelsztajn of Radziłów describing conditions under the 1939-1941 Soviet Russian occupation and the 1941 German invasion. Chaya Finkelsztajn survived the 1941-1945 German occupation, under extremely perilous and difficult conditions, after a Polish Catholic priest agreed to baptize her as a Christian. She later immigrated to Israel, where she wrote her memoir.
 Despite the publication of various documents, articles, these two big volumes do not MENTION, OR PRESENT SEAPRAATE DOCUMENT AS THE PARTIAL exhumation of prof. Kola in Jedwabne. Researches of IPN did not reach and considered all documents in Ludwigsburg and Freiburg Gessen and other juditian proceedings in Germany. In particular they failed to dig up   the documents for the judicial case prison conviction of Herman Schaper. As well as,   unfinished  interview  with him.  Researchers of IPN did not dig up mentioned before   documents of Obercomando Ciechanow from the years 1940 to1945, PROBABLY located in the Interior Ministry of Poland.
Tortuous, hasty and without any justification speeded decision to finish investigation about Jedwabne massacre is unprecedented in such investigations. Not to mention the stopping the exhumation for so called religious reasons. This argument is without any foundation, or reason. Similar investigations (exhumations) were finished in Warsaw, or in Prague. On July 9, 2002, IPN released the Final Findings of its two-year-long investigation.[43] In a carefully worded summary (quoted by Polonsky), [44] IPN stated its principal conclusions as follows:
  • The perpetrators of the crime sensu stricto were Polish inhabitants of Jedwabne and its environs; responsibility for the crime sensu largo could be ascribed to the Germans. IPN found that Poles played a ‘decisive role’ in the massacre, but the massacre was ‘inspired by the Germans’. The massacre was carried out in full view of the Germans, who were armed and had control of the town, and the Germans refused to intervene and halt the killings. IPN wrote: “The presence of German military policemen.....and other uniformed Germans.....was tantamount to consent to, and tolerance of the crime.”
  • At least 340 Jewish victims were killed in the pogrom, in two groups of which the first contained 40 to 50 people, and the second group contained about 300. The exact number of victims could not be determined. The figure of 1,600 or so victims (cited in ‘Neighbors’) was “highly unlikely, and was not confirmed in the course of the investigation.”
  • “At least forty (Polish) men” were perpetrators of the crime. As for the remainder of Jedwabne’s population, IPN deplored “the passive behavior of the majority of the town’s population in the face of the crime.” However, IPN’s finding of ‘utter passivity’ shown by the majority of Jedwabne’s population is very different from the statement on page 7 of ‘Neighbors’ that “half of the population of the town murdered the other half.” The majority of Jedwabne residents were “utterly passive,” IPN found, and they did not participate in the pogrom.
  • A number of witnesses had testified that the Germans drove the group of Jewish victims from Jedwabne’s town square to the barn where they were killed (these testimonies are found in the expanded 203-page ‘Findings’ published in June 2003). IPN could neither conclusively prove nor disprove these accounts. “Witness testimonies vary considerably on this question.”
  • “A certain group of Jewish people survived” the massacre. Several dozen Jews, or according to several sources approximately one hundred Jews, lived in a ghetto in Jedwabne until November 1942, when the Jews were transferred by the Germans to a ghetto in Lomza, and eventually died in Treblinka. The seven Jews hidden by the Wyrzykowski family were not the only survivors.
A greatly expanded version of the Findings, in 203 pages of Polish text, was issued by the IPN on June 30, 2003. The original version from July 9, 2002, appears as the concluding five pages of this document. Pages 60 through 160 contain summaries of the testimonies of numerous witnesses interviewed by IPN. The full 203-page Polish text detailing government-led investigation was published on the IPN website.[41] It was supplemented with the publication of two volumes of studies and documents concerning the Jedwabne pogrom entitled Around Jedwabne, Vol.1 'Studies' (525 pages) and Vol.2 'Documents' (1,034 pages) available in Polish.[45] On June 30, 2003, prosecutor Radosław J. Ignatiew announced that the investigation of "the mass murder of at least 340 Polish citizens of Jewish nationality in Jedwabne on July 10, 1941" had discovered no living suspected perpetrators in the Jedwabne atrocity who had not already been brought to justice, and hence the IPN investigation was now closed.[46] Jan T. Gross himself praised the conduct of the IPN investigation.[47] [48]  4.  Deficiencies in IPN investigations: legal truth, historical truth   The main purpose of IPN investigation was:  to verify three hypotheses: a.) The Massacre in question was perpetrated by Germans alone without any Polish participation, or participating Polish civilians   acting under duress caused by Germans. b.) The massacre was perpetrated by Poles alone from their own will without any German participation. c.)  The massacre was done by Poles acting under German inspiration with few of German acceptance and without any consequences. (P.2 of the IPN  verdict).  Taking in mind of these hypotheses, IPN researches were digging up the available on that time the archives, testimonies of 111 witnesses (alleged perpetrators, other Jewish witnesses from outside Poland), testimonies of Shmul Wasserstein, other written by Jews testimonies, some art effects from partial exhumation, Polish judicial proceedings from 1949-1950, 1964, or 1974.  IPN investigators paid attention also to some other alleged perpetrators not named in the Polish Court Proceedings mentioned before. IPN , as criminal  investigative arm of Polish Authorities acting under auspices of a decree issued on August 31 1944 about the punishment of fasict-hitleraites perpetrators guilty of murders and harassment of the civil populace, or  prisoners of war as well as traitors of Polish Nation.( Pag 1 PIN decree  “ Somebody , who was complicit to the Powers of German  State , or  associated with it:1. And took part in murders of civilian population, or military persons, or prisoners of war is culpable, is under penalty of death). This IPN investigation was in fact a criminal  one, as such” The attitude of jedwabne inhabitants   in regard to the massacre perpetrated on July 10 1941  is not  subject of legal-punishable  qualification and  may be  subject of   judgment as punishable responsibility” p. 203 IPN). IPN stated also, that some of the alleged perpetrators were punished legally; some are not a live, and others not identifiable to be a subject of criminal persecution in that murder on July 10 1941 (p203 IPN-decision. It is worth to add, that, after exhaustive investigation IPN did not explain inconsistencies contradictions in testimonies of witnesses as well for as others. d.) Inexplicable and unheard terror of German occupation on that time. Mass killings of Poles  and other for that matter. IPN did not address this question.  They did not put in place socio-political conditions of the massacre as well, as other facts, we will research later. 1.      IPN FINDINGS ABOUT Hermann Schaper and other shortcomings. He was subject of many judicial proceedings in Germany. Schaper’s some of the judgments and convictions were detrimental to him as well as, real convictions, when he was subject of many judicial proceedings in Germanns. Curiosum Sui generis is the close of judicial documents from his trials in Germany (or Federal Republic of Germany).  His answers in the partial investigation, or other investigations were incorrect (it means he lied). IPN‘s Schaper investigation can be judged as an incomplete. After stating that SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Hermann Schaper was a head for group  commando Gestapo from Ciechanow. They verified that this person was present in Lomza region in July and August 1941. During the interrogation, Hermann Schaper did not answer question asked about his involvement despite read testimony of other witness, and suddenly he fell sick. The next day, after medical examination it was impossible to interrogate him anymore. And IPN did not pursue the lead and showed his leniency about investigating the German Court system in reference to Hermann Schaper. 2.   No one from IPN investigated the leave of merchants and traders from Jedwabne to Radzilow on Thursday early morning. Did they have an opportunity to leave the town of Jedwabne, or were stopped by Germans. Curfew hour impacted movements from Jedwabne on the leave of merchants and farmers. 3. Priest Szumowski‘s documents were judged by IPN as irrelevant without given any reason. 4. Nowhere was mentioned in the publications or IPN any findings about found scull with the bullet whole.  Insufficient or lack of explanation in regards to the proportionality of the victims murdered to the alleged perpetrators. Suggestion about Russian tranches   form world War One  in direct  vicinity of Slechynski’s barn as a false indication to derail the research of the true killers.  Incompetence of researchers   and IPN findings about  the „tools of fight” between farmers, peasants, and others. (Pull-hanger-it means orczyk, klonnica – piece of wood holding horse wagon board against touching the wheels of the horse wagon).   IPN did not go to investigate the arms used at the Jedwabne massacre (German and soviet). It was known to them, that Bardon was a member of the Soviet Police before June 22 1941, and after that date he was a policeman for German Gendarmerie allegedly using soviet arms on the gendarmerie post in Jedwabne. 5.  Who killed about 40 strong Jews in the barn?    Euphemistic German  instructions (cleansing) to annihilate the Jews as well as at list “enigmatic” language of   IPN (sensu largo sensu stricto). In one case they suggested the hypothesis (about killing Poles) in another they were inclined to promote the theories.  Based on the testimonies of the witnesses, graves location and its sizes, an s well as Gendarmerie personnel, we attempt to answer the questions: Who helped Germans to kill about 40 Jews in Sleszynski’s barn? a)       Volksdeuches (Bardon) and other Poles wearing German uniforms having some of the arms of soviet origin and German origin. b)        Other  German Gendarmes of Polish origin forced by other German Gendarmes  like Sokolowski, Tarnacki and others c)        Some unknowns from “Lumpenproletariat” living in Jedwabne , or its environs. d)       Some German Gendarmes of Polish origin having previous encores against the Jews: Luadanski family. e)        Some other unknowns and not listed in the testimonies by name, but wanted to take opportunity to show their “existence” in the eyes of habitants of Jedwabne. But ,    5. Eizathgrupe Ciechanow. Schaper was the commander and was present and gave the orders to burn the Jews in the barn. When they try to escape his subordinate killed them. This same tactic Schaper used in RAdzilow three days earlier. My statement  what happened  in  Jedwabne on 10 July 1941 and not as a hypothesis : The findings of the witnesses during the trial in Lomza , findings issued in  judgments on Schaper in Germany, the activity of his group in Lomza , abundant literature, witnesses , partial exhumation my own guesses based on the realities of small-town life ,  my own understanding of their   psyche of those people , it   proves with any shed of doubt  that  the Jedwabne massacre was perpetrated  by  Germans themselves ,made ​​with the participation of the German gendarmerie partly Polish origin , and some ,or other dozens  individuals having  settle the accounts with the  Jews. They came from or are coming from marginalized group of “Hooligans” and did it to be remarked   in eyes of Germans. And at the same time I try to respond comprehensively to any doubt, as some obvious explanation, which seems to be simple for singular events and facts. All the dots are put to correct  and   to correlate all the actual course of the massacre.” This is a statement from  IPN investigation:" Recognizing , therefore , the materials of evidence in the files of  Lomza process have not been manipulated and in fairness the data they contain must accept the consequences of the  Polish  civilians were significant perpetrators  taking part in the  events  of  July 10, 1941 " p 200 IPN.         " While the process in Lomza requires  critical approach and assessment of neglect  how  it  was run ( such  appraisal was made ​​previously in the text above) , it is however allow  us its findings on the testimony of witnesses  critical approach  to  this complex investigation , which  pointed to the large presence of uniformed and armed Germans in Jedwabne on July 10, 1941 . , as their perpetrated  accomplice  at all stages of making the crime.  For that reason   the hypothesis that massacre in Jedwabne was Germans’ executed without the participation of the Poles or forcing them to participate a dozen or so residents of Jedwabne should be considered unproven "(p. 201 IPN ruling.) IPN investigation continued for two more years, as of early 2001. Obviously, the IPN finding of Polish involvement in the Jedwabne massacre was public knowledge in Poland all the way. 5.Omissions in IPN Research: historical truth, legal truth  Who is Guilty?  IPN investigation was of  a criminal nature. To prove the  commission of crime behind the reasonable doubt is a high standard for the prosecutors. It requires a lot of documents, proves, material facts, discoveries, univoque circumstances, as well as investigative skills and opportunities.  For IPN investigators it was insurmountable task, under the circumstances. Give already passed judgments multiple investigations, persons once convicted, others let go free.  UN other handicap was a Decret for August 31 1944 itself. By its nature was a political in nature to persecute rather political enemies, reactioneers, of “enemies of the people” of the installed Soviets regime in occupied Poland second time.  In moral terms can we ask, about direct responsibility of the massacre committed on Jews July 10 1941? Germans or Poles. The answer is univoque: The German occupiers. This crime would occur despite Polish presence, or absence. It was a German directive to kill Jews by any available means with or without indigene cooperation, as directed by Henrych.  Can we talk about indirect responsibility of Polish population in Jedwabne in general? As we know a few dozen of Poles-German employees, Volkdeuches or others were involved in it.  We have an accidental responsibility, which would make the perpetrated massacre to be executed in easer way. It would be a case of Polish involvement.  In moral consideration, we distinguish a direct co responsibility of the act committed. In our case in Jedwabne direct corresponsability did not occur, due to the simple fact, that the region was under German occupation as well as terror was omnipotent everywhere. Indirect coreponsability did not take place either due to the fact that at that time   nobody even dreamed about massacre of the 200 Jews living side by side with Polish populace. Accidental correposability could be present in sense, that burning place was given by Sleszynski – voluntary, or not.    6.Final decision of IPN is a fallowing:  “On this stage of the investigation it is right to stay, in a sense of the crime responsibility sensu largo legal-punitive to ascribe it   to the Germans. Executors of the massacre, as doers sensu stricto were Polish inhabitants of Jedwabne and environs – men in number at list of forty… they took part actively in perpetuating the massacre armed with batons, pull-hangers and other tools.” These acts  according to this investigation  are qualified as   the acts  non  lapsed crimes according to  art.1 point 1 f decree from August ( (1944_M.B.IPNp. 202). This IPN investigation was in fact a criminal  one, as such:” The attitude of Jedwabne inhabitants   in regard to the massacre perpetrated on July 10 1941  is not  a subject of legal-punishable  qualification and  may  be  subject of   judgment as punishable responsibility” p. 203 IPN). IPN stated also, that some of the alleged perpetrators were punished legally; some are not a live, and others not identifiable to be a subject of criminal persecution in that murder on July 10 1941 (p203 IPN-decision. It is worth to add, that, after executive investigation IPN did not explain inconsistencies contradictions in testimonies of witnesses as well for as others.  It fueled the uproar and rational and often irrational discussion in Politics, Government and Research Circles and Academia. As stated in Wikipedia: “The IPN interviewed some 111 witnesses over the course of two years, mainly from Poland, but also from Israel and the United States.[38] One-third of the IPN witnesses had been eyewitnesses of some part of the 1941 pogrom. Since the event had occurred 59 years earlier when most of the survivors still living today were children, their recollections varied. IPN searched for, and examined documents in Polish archives in Warsaw, Bialystok and Łomża; in German archives, and at Yad Vashem in Israel. In May–June 2001 IPN conducted a partial exhumation at the site of the barn where the largest group of Jewish victims perished. The scope of the exhumation was strictly limited by religious objections against disturbing the remains of the dead, embodied in Jewish religious doctrine. The IPN forensic examiner, based on a similar exhumation at Katyn where Stalin’s aides had murdered 22,000 Polish prisoners-of-war in 1940, estimated that the burial site in Jedwabne contained between 300 and 400 victims.[41]” Leon Kieres, the President of IPN, also met  in New York with Rabbi Jacob Baker, [42] formerly Yaakov Eliezer Piekarz, who had immigrated in 1938 from Jedwabne to the United States. In January 2001, during his visit to New York, Kieres made public that IPN had accumulated enough evidence to confirm that a group of Poles were indeed perpetrators in the Jedwabne massacre. The IPN evidence was subsequently presented in reports by IPN to the Polish Parliament and in various other public statements.[18] While the IPN investigation continued for two more years, as of early 2001 the IPN finding of Polish involvement in the Jedwabne massacre was public knowledge in Poland. Leon Kieres, the President of IPN, also met in New  York with Rabbi Jacob Baker, [42] formerly Yaakov Eliezer Piekarz, who had immigrated in 1938 from Jedwabne to the United States. In January 2001, during his visit to New York, Kieres made public that IPN had accumulated enough evidence to confirm that a group of Poles were indeed perpetrators in the Jedwabne massacre. The IPN evidence was subsequently presented in reports by IPN to the Polish Parliament and in various other public statements.[18].  This is a statement from  IPN investigation:" Recognizing , therefore , the materials of evidence in the files of  Lomza process have not been manipulated and in fairness the data they contain must accept the consequences of the  Polish  civilians were significant perpetrators  taking part in the  events  of  July 10, 1941 " p 200 IPN A state investigation that closed in 2002 said that some 40 Polish men killed between 300 and 400 Jewish men, women and children in Jedwabne, in Poland’s northeast, beating some to death and burning others alive in a barn. It was impossible to state the exact number of victims, the investigators said.
" While the process in Lomza requires  critical approach and assessment of neglect  how  it  was run ( such  appraisal was made ​​previously in the text above) , it is however allow  us its findings on the testimony of witnesses  critical approach  to  this complex investigation , which  pointed to the large presence of uniformed and armed Germans in Jedwabne on July 10, 1941 . , as their perpetrated  accomplice  at all stages of making the crime.  For that reason   the hypothesis that massacre in Jedwabne was Germans’ executed without the participation of the Poles or forcing them to participate a dozen or so residents of Jedwabne should be considered unproven "(p. 201 IPN ruling.)   Ewa Wolentarska-Ochman, in his article Collective remembrance in JEddwabne :Unsettled Memory of War II in Post communist Poland”  mentioned some of these questions as well , as political involvement of The Polish Authorities in the debate and the  “Cleansing Memory( oczyszcznie pamieci p. 153… and fallowing) .   7. Handicapped and deficient memories about Jedwabne    Prof. Dmitrov recently wrote: "if I have had today, at the end of the decade from the climactic wave of interest about Jedwabne, to answer one opinion, which it left, I'd say-Memorial Jedwabne. Jedwabne is a memory place, rather than not fully discovered, but previously unexplored about facts and figures. Of course, it is impossible to deny that the debate around Jedwabne, which meant, after all, that many people have tried to get the truth, we know much more about it what occurred in 1941. In fact, however, not so much we went deep in the mystery of the past, how much we dig up and to put in light the stories have long been known to indigent people, but for various reasons, hidden, put under the table, doomed some times to obscurity or presented in accordance with the truth.  Without a doubt Jedwabne functions as a Memorial of awkwardness, because we are speaking about our guilt. However, it seems that for most the past secrecy was Jedwabne was reviled. This case, about which Gross wrote, was known in a very limited circle, and they tried to break the silence (Datner, articles of Wroniszewskis from the 80s) but it ended in a fiasco. Gross as the first exposed the myth, according to which the Poles were only victims as suffering for longer and harder than the other Nations. The other books written by him were accepted with more calm -is it because people were familiar with the topic, with the idea that they can be situations, when we caused the pain to others with our own will?
Full text: http://bialystok.gazeta.pl/bialystok/1,100421,9912070,UlAs already mentioned, if you talk about the pogroms in1941 in public awareness, Jedwabne comes to mind. Hardly anyone can point out where else similar events accured.  Jedwabne takes the blame for other towns. The town has become a sinister symbol and it would be good if its inhabitants able to somehow gain, in take in mind but not on the principle: "we (what was found by the researchers) we don’t want to accept." Maybe wouldn't be a bad idea to organize the Jedwabne debate, as suggested by the current mayor, an attempt to address the theme after the years of, irritable media clamor. Ewa Wolentarska-Ochman, in his article Collective remembrance in JEddwabne :Unsettled Memory of War II in Post communist Poland”  mentioned some of these questions as well , as political involvement of The Polish Authorities in the debate and the  “Cleansing Memory( oczyszcznie pamieci p. 153… and fallowing) . 8.  POLAND’S Authorities and Massacre of Jedwabne The Polish Parliament ordered a brand new investigation into the Jedwabne atrocity in July 2000, and entrusted the Institute of National Remembrance with transmitting their findings for possible legal action. The Polish Institute of National Remembrance (Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, IPN), was then a recently created independent successor to the Commission for the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland, formed only after the collapse of the Soviet empire. Its major role was the promotion of historical research on topics banned for over 40 years already, during the 1945–1989 period of Communist rule; including anti-Semitic pogroms in Soviet-occupied Poland. As its first project, the IPN commenced an investigation of the Jedwabne pogrom in response to a heated debate among leading historians, which followed the publication of Sąsiedzi (Neighbors) by the Polish-American historian Jan T. Gross first in the Polish-language.[38][39] His book gave impetus to the investigation, even though the first scholarly analisis containing similar conclusions has already been published as far back as December 1966 by Szymon Datner in the Białystok bulletin of ŻIH (No 60), followed by a brief 1976 inquiry aided by German authorities.[38][40]  Attitude of Polish Officials, like Ministry of Foreign Affairs, or The President of Poland is a curiosum sui generis. At list on two or more occasions, they engaged in controversial scientific drafts publication as an official governmental stand. More they are financing films, or other public expressions (screen plays) about the massacre the way to promote Jewish narrative about the tragedy.
     Sorry to say, but  in addition, to  the mainstream  of liberal intelligentsia  of Polish- Jewish origin ,   they were  many members of the opposition activists to certain model of communism earlier in communist circles  are  constantly   present   at these days.
 This trend manifested itself especially on the occasion of 1968 events when it was carried out as a purge of anti-Jewish communists from the ranks of the party and from the government. The purge had been done as a clear filosemitic and pro-Israeli sympathies. They were stigmatized, and had to leave the circles of the ruling elites. AT that time a Jewish elite sometimes in fear of alleged criminal sanctions for abuse of the law before 1968 had to leave Poland.  JT Gross was   part of this group.
 On other hand, as you know, this cleansing of 1968 coincided with student demonstrations against the government, which took place in every major academic center in Poland. The Jews were considered victims of hatred of other Jewish Communists according to the striking audience at that time.
This filosemitic sentiment soared amid anti-communist Polish intelligence derived from Litvaks and Polonized Jews after 1968.
 It  came to the force , especially in times of "Solidarity "(1980-1981) to allegedly strengthen  Polish accession to the road  for so called  “full” independence in 1989 , which was , and is seen in diplomacy and  in the mass media over the last 30 years .  In July 2001, on the 60th anniversary of the pogrom, Polish president Aleksander Kwaśniewski attended a ceremony at Jedwabne where he made a speech stating the murderers were Poles whose crime was both against the Jewish nation and against Poland. He said the murderers had been incited by German occupiers, but they alone carried the burden of guilt for their crimes. While ruling out the notion of collective responsibility, he also sought forgiveness "In the name of those who believe that one cannot be proud of the glory of Polish history without feeling, at the same time, pain and shame for the evil done by Poles to others."[62] The ceremony was attended by Catholic and Jewish religious leaders and survivors of the pogrom. Most of the locals of Jedwabne boycotted the ceremony.[63][64] Awareness of the Jedwabne massacre among the Polish public was very high. A March 2001 poll conducted by the Polish daily Rzeczpospolita found that one-half of Poles were aware of the Jedwabne massacre; among Poles with a higher education the proportion rose to 81 percent. 40 percent of respondents supported Kwaśniewski's decision to apologize for the crime. A majority condemned the actions of the Poles involved in the Jedwabne massacre.[65] Attitude of Polish Officials, like Ministry of Foreign Affairs, or The President of Poland is a curiosum sui generis. At list on two or more occasions, they engaged in controversial scientific drafts publication as an official governmental stand. More they are financing films, or other public expressions (screen plays) about the massacre the way to promote Jewish narrative about the tragedy.
     Sorry to say, but  in addition, to  the mainstream  of liberal intelligentsia  of Polish- Jewish origin ,   they were  many members of the opposition activists to certain model of communism earlier in communist circles  are  constantly   present   at these days.
 This trend manifested itself especially on the occasion of 1968 events when it was carried out as a purge of anti-Jewish communists from the ranks of the party and from the government. The purge had been done as a clear filosemitic and pro-Israeli sympathies. They were stigmatized, and had to leave the circles of the ruling elites. AT that time a Jewish elite sometimes in fear of alleged criminal sanctions for abuse of the law before 1968 had to leave Poland.  JT Gross was   part of this group.
 On other hand, as you know, this cleansing of 1968 coincided with student demonstrations against the government, which took place in every major academic center in Poland. The Jews were considered victims of hatred of other Jewish Communists according to the striking audience at that time.
This filosemitic sentiment soared amid anti-communist Polish intelligence derived from Litvaks and Polonized Jews after 1968.
 It  came to the force , especially in times of "Solidarity "(1980-1981) to allegedly strengthen  Polish accession to the road  for so called  “full” independence in 1989 , which was , and is seen in diplomacy and  in the mass media over the last 30 years. . In July 2001, on the 60th anniversary of the pogrom, Polish president Aleksander Kwaśniewski attended a ceremony at Jedwabne where he made a speech stating the murderers were Poles whose crime was both against the Jewish nation and against Poland. He said the murderers had been incited by German occupiers, but they alone carried the burden of guilt for their crimes. While ruling out the notion of collective responsibility, he also sought forgiveness "In the name of those who believe that one cannot be proud of the glory of Polish history without feeling, at the same time, pain and shame for the evil done by Poles to others."[62] The ceremony was attended by Catholic and Jewish religious leaders and survivors of the pogrom. Most of the locals of Jedwabne boycotted the ceremony.[63][64] Awareness of the Jedwabne massacre among the Polish public was very high. A March 2001 poll conducted by the Polish daily Rzeczpospolita found that one-half of Poles were aware of the Jedwabne massacre; among Poles with a higher education the proportion rose to 81 percent. 40 percent of respondents supported Kwaśniewski's decision to apologize for the crime. A majority condemned the actions of the Poles involved in the Jedwabne massacre.(65)  The sixtieth Aniversary of The Massacre was marked by controversies and political misgivings, asa well as lack of Jedwabinies participation in the event. All what can be seen were  Jewish representatives from Polish Governement , or different Jewish Institutions. In this national malese President   Aleksander Kwasniewski gave a fallowing speech: At that time - sixty years ago -Poland was to be wiped out from the map of Europe. There were no Polish authorities in Jedwabne. The Polish state was unable to protect its citizens against the crime committed with the Nazi permission, at Nazi instigation. But the Republic of Poland should persist in the Polish hearts and minds. And the standards of a civilized state, the state with ages-old traditions of tolerance and amicable co-existence of nations and religions should be binding on its citizens. Those who killed, beat, took part in the dead set, set fire - committed crime not only against their Jewish neighbors. They are also guilty towards the Republic of Poland, its history and glorious traditions.  We are standing on a tormented land. The name Jedwabne, by a tragic ordain of fate had become for its today's citizens a byword recalling to human memory the ghosts of fratricide. It is not only in Jedwabne that superstitious prejudice was enkindled into the murderous flame of hatred in the "furnace era". Death, grief and suffering of the Jews from Jedwabne, from Radzilow and other localities, all these painful events which lay a gloomy shadow on Poland's history are the responsibility of the perpetrators and instigators. We cannot speak of collective responsibility burdening with guilt the citizens of any other locality or the entire nation. Every man is responsible only for his own acts. The sons do not inherit the sins of the fathers. But can we say: that was long ago, they were different? The nation is a community. Community of individuals,community of generations. And this is why we have to look the truth into the eyes. Any  truth. And say: it was, it happened. Our conscience will be clear if the memories of those days will for ever evoke awe and moral indignation.We are here to make a collective self examination. We are paying tribute to the victims and we are saying - never again.Let us all be the citizens of Jedwabne today. Let us feel what they feel! Let us remain with them in a common sense of grievance, despair, shame and solidarity. Cain could have killed Abel anywhere. All communities could have been tried in the same way. The trial of evil, but also of good. Of meanness  and nobility. Righteous is the one who was able to demonstrate compassion in face of human suffering. How many Poles - also inhabitants of the neighborhood also of Jedwabne deserve to be called righteous!Let us recall all of them today with greatest gratitude and with highest respect.Thanks to a great nation-wide debate regarding this crime committed in 1941, much has changed in our lives in 2001, the first year of the new millennium. Today's Poland has courage to look into the eyes of the truth about a nightmare which gloomed one of the chapters in its history.We have become aware of the responsibility for our attitude towards the dark pages in our history. We have understood that bad service is done to the nation by those who are impelling to renounce that past. Such attitude leads to a moral self-destruction.We who have gathered here today, with all the people in our country who have clear and sensitive conscience, with the lay and religious moral authorities, consolidating our adherence to basic values, paying homage to the memory of the murdered and most deeply deploring the despicable perpetrators of the crime, give expression to our pain and shame, we manifest our determination to learn the truth, courage to overcome the evil past, firm will of understanding and agreement.For this crime we should beg the souls of the dead and their families for forgiveness. This is why today, the President of the Republic of Poland, I beg pardon. I beg pardon in my own name and in the name of those Poles whose conscience is shattered by that crime.In the name of those who believe that one cannot be proud of the glory of Polish history without feeling, at the same time, pain and shame for the evil done by Poles to others.  After  ten years of  research , public debates , The President took a podium once again  fallowing Kwasniewski’s steps.  Prezydent  Bronislaw Komorowski  wrote the letter read by  TAdeusz   Mazowiecki  at the Jedwabne Memorial. The letter was as fallows: Ladies and Gentlemen! I join you with prayer all, who came here for the ceremony to be held for the 70th anniversary of the murder in Jedwabne.In this place, on July 10, 1941, Jewish residents of Jedwabne and surrounding towns were in the cruel way deprived of life. Killed men, women and children, old and young. Only a few survived, which in time they managed to escape. Died-burned alive – almost all the Jewish citizens of Jedwabne. Their cry of fear, exploding from the burning barn, despite the passage of decades it not goes silent.Although the perpetrators of this crime were immediately after the war, tried. Ten years ago, a complete picture of this tragedy came to the minds and consciences of millions of Poles.  For A lot of people it was hard to believe that the repulsive murder was committed Polish hands. However, this is confirmed by research and publications, as well as an investigation carried out by the Institute of National Remembrance.This crime happened in inhumane times of World War II, when there was no Poland here.  It was destroyed by two aggressive totalitarisms in September 1939.  During the World War II, during in which the Poles were absolutely annihilated and persecuted. This explains the circumstances of this crime, but it in no way justifies it. Therefore, just as the Pole and the President of the Republic, I acclaim and mention the attitude of my predecessor, President Aleksander Kwaśniewski, who spoke before me ten years ago here in Jedwabne, with enough strength, on behalf of himself and, as he put it for these Poles "which the conscience is raised that was a crime", he apologized for the murder. He called on the perpetrators of this crime by name: he described them as "the guilty to the Republic, to its great history and tradition".Yes, these people have betrayed the Republic. Raised their hand on their Jewish fellow citizens. In the barn in Jedwabne perpetrators of this event, set fire to a centuries-old ideals of the Republic, a proud tradition of a country which  was once in Europe the State without stacks and we do not understand it. Residents of Jedwabne, Polish citizens of Jewish nationality were burned in this barn trodden down  there by their Polish neighbors. Died- with the consent of the occupier, because they were Jews. (This passage is particularly shameful and mudslinging- M.B.) We feel even today the pain and shame because of what then happened.With respect and gratitude we think simultaneously about these Poles who, in this terrible hell of war and destruction were carrying aid to Jews. Also here, in the Podlasie region. These people did not give them the death penalty imposed by the Germans for helping Jewish nieghbours as their co-citizens. They save them by giving them aid and shelter. Many, sometimes entire families, they have paid the highest price for it. Ladies and Gentlemen,  Jedwabne is not only the name of depicting dramatic events during World War II. It is also an important character in the collective consciousness and memory. Nation of victims has  to consider this an uneasy truth, that they were the culprits. Long before we realized that the granting this fault does not invalidate the Polish martyrs of Polish heroism in the fight against German and Soviet occupiers. That does not mean Relativizing guilt and overturning rational in evaluating the historical merits and sins. The Office of the President of the Republic was from the beginning to support this difficult process. I bow my head for the effort of my predecessors  to clean up the historical memory and to restore good relations between Poles and Jews. They restored relations Polish-Jewish in the dimension, what should be the relationship between the peoples that inhabit the same Earth. Today at the 70th anniversary of the murder in Jedwabne we think first and foremost about loneliness, horror and suffering of these victims. We can mourn them now, after seventy years. We want-along with today's inhabitants of Jedwabne – until the end to understand what then happened, and realize what today must happened to save as memory, caution, undertaking. Then there was there. But today it is today. And they hear Fatherland’s the complaint, and F continuing cry for its Jewish citizens. Today – on  their behalf-I take part in their suffering. And once again, I ask them for forgiveness. “The nation must understand that it also had an active role in the event,” “Once again, I beg forgiveness.” Bronisław Komorowski http://www.prezydent.pl/aktualnosci/wypo.....abnem.html  This narrative of alleged Jedwabiniens participation in the massacre, and Polish alleged participation in the annihilation of Jews is promulgated by so called Polish Autorities outside Poland.  As an exemple we can use : distribution  by MSZ ( Ministry of Foreign Affairs)of “Inferno of Choices”.           It’s totally unprecedented and never found  ( even Machiavelli in his “Prince” did not advised  his hero to blame his own people) in the ancient or present   diplomacy  (1)that Official Part of the Government” Ministry of Foreign Affairs” is distributing the writing exposing marginal behavior  (socially condemned) of few hundred, or a few thousands of  its disgruntled citizens (it’s difficult to be established if they wereJewish, Polish,   Belarusian or German origin- like in presented  letters  in the book “Dear Mr. Gestapo”). It’s a first time in diplomacy circles that Ministry of Foreign Affairs edited some previously published essays and outdated articles, bought entire edition and is in process of sending to World Academia.  
        When we read the book, immediately, even unfamiliar reader can verifythat   in “Inferno of Choices”, the subject of Polish help to the Jews is well known and, there aremany researches and serious publications about it .but in mind time unfamiliar editors with the subject published outdated mostly incomplete articles about marginal behavior of few hundred or few(2-3 in total) thousand of inhabitants living on enitire  occupied Polish soil (szmalcowniki-blakmailers).Unfortunately, the book as the title suggests, the Poles can be associated with Holocaust (Poles and Holocaust).
             Let’s read the book “Inferno of Choices Poles and the Holocaust”, Officinal Wydawnicza RYTM
WARSAWA 2012. SECOND EDITION Revised and expanded by Sebastian Rejak
and Elzbita Fister.  Book as presented is published in English only and destined to English reading population, who wanted to learn more about controversial subject of Holocaust and Poles. This edition is distributed by Polish Foreign Ministry to American libraries, scientific Centers and universities. Book is intended to shed the lights on the mentioned subject.  Contrary to the content of the book,  in eyes of MSZ and some political figures, unfortunately, “inferno of Choices” pretends to publish serious scientific research
and up to date, about the subject of Polish help to its neighbors of Jewish origin. And about other subjects essential to understand complicated Polish – Jewish relations.   MSZ spokesman MaciejKozlowski” goes even further by saying: (zaden zawodowy historyk, nie bedzie mogl pominac tego
wydawnictwa”)-From now on, each serious historian can’t miss thisbook”... and according to M. Kozlowski (Ta wyspecializowana publikacja trafi do waznych bibliotek w swiecie) _--this specialized publication will be available in libraries of the world.”  Unfortunately, Mr.  Kozlowski- supposed to be an expert in Polish-Jewish relations  goes even further in his defense of the book in his  exposé  he stayed :“Holocaust research (in Poland-M.B) are conducted
professionally in Academia, and Researchers do not fall in the pit of propaganda (Badania  nad zaglada sa prowadzone na wysokim poziomie Ipolscy badacze nie uciekaja w propaganda”. Really??? .11)
  Inferno of Choices: archives and particular choices: Editors Sebastian and Elzbieta Fister employees of MSZ had a
monumental and almost insurmountable task to make choices in thousands of pages of different archives, and hundreds of thousands of books and
articles from propaganda exposé of Gross like confabulations to serious research on the subject published about Holocaust and Polish-Jewish relations is particular. Unfortunately, in choosing the documents from archives, the Editors never exposed the Jewish-German collaboration in annihilation of the other Jews or Jews in Gestapo, Al- Gl spying on Polish Underground Forces and Jewish collaboration with Gestapo like Hotel Polski, Stokowski, Slomkowski affair etc).
Unfortunately the fall in the pit of political correctness and voluntary or not  they mostly preferred  expose and publicized  the confabulation accredited to Jedwabinistic historical school of thought  in line  suggested by Polish Jews represented by Jewish  Polnohaiters   or insensitive to Polish National Interest represented by Znak Wiez, Przeglad, Gazeta Wyborcza, some governmental agencies, some elements of otwarta Rzeczypospolita. , Zydowski Institute Historyczny and other Jewish scientific entities active in Research of Jewish history in Poland, all active in Poland and often supported by  Polish taxpayers. Choices they made in documents mostly were off the mark.     But, rightly, they published some documents of Polish Government Underground, or some German documents showing German politics against Jews and Poles. They published also some posters of execution Jews’
blackmailers. Unfortunately, they  included  in their publication , some marginal documents like articles from Democratic Alliance’s underground – unknown underground paper promulgating Armia Ludowa and Gwardia Ludowa, which were under Soviet influence and contrary to the will and Independence   of  Polish population.  For serious scientists, there are a lot of documents showing Jewish infiltration of AK, and  many  denouncements made disgruntled Jews to Gestapo.
     Soon after with their narrative promulgated by  certain Jewish circles in mind, they make us familiar with the writing of Polish Jew Zofia Kossak- Szczucka, when she described living conditions in the rural areas during the war. As well as Editors published MEMOIRS of Wladyslaw Bartoszewski – another controversial   Pole of Jewish origin. In short : in their archived documents published , Rejak and Fister disproportionately expose marginal questions  by underlining
“blackmailers”-who were 2-3 thousand  of total Polish population.( Even they shot into their own leg; later presenting exposé of Barbara Engeling about anonym letters- written by unknowns including Jews denounced their own). Unfortunately, Blackmailers were very active among Jewish population in occupied Poland.   Conspicuously, this type of documents are absent from the first part of the book, despite that this is an essential part of the Holocaust question.
        So, the poor choices made by Editors  from archives are not necessary Inferno of Choices, but close to it, and according to the narrative so popular in Jewish milieu of Polish origin:  Unfortunately , the key for choosing the type of documents  could be : Poles are an “unexpected link to Holocaust “ done by Nazi Germany. This   opinion is promulgated in by some Poles of Jewish origin, or their  denomination. INFERNO OF CHOICES; EDITORS and authors
a)      Editors.
Contrary what said Mr. Kozlowski, Mr. Sebastian Rejak (seastian.rejak@msz.gov.pl) is employed by MSZ as well as Elzbieta Fister (elzbieta.fister@msz.gov.pl). Mr. Rejak published in English“Jewish identities in Poland and USA”.  E. Fister has degree in linguistic and works as Head of Polish Institute in Tel Aviv. Both are connected to Judaism by blood and convictions.
b) Authors
    Unfortunately, besides “Jewish” and Jedwabinistic School of Thought approaching Holocaust and Jewish studies from their particular point of view , there are many Polish and other researchers more objective, focusing on archives, historical documents
than the  propaganda, or political agenda. Scientifically oriented publishing and studies are making subject of Polish – Jewish relations more clear, closer to the reality, despite controversy, more understandable to the scientific community as well to the politicians.6)”
Serious studies about this controversial topic are desperately needed conducted by different scientific circles, not only by Jewish one.
Conspicuously this type of works visibly is absent   form second part of the book, despite “solemn” assurances of Mr. Kozlowski.  Interpretations. Except OF ONE, OR TWO AUTHORS (G.Berendt, Elzbieta Raczy), the rest of the writers are connected one way, or other (by conviction, financial support to Judaism, or they are Semitic origin). In their research they are focusing on marginal question like: anonyms, or szaber – associated with each and every war, payment by Jews for the food, or services as it goes in business transactions done by the Poles, and other nationalities.
Some of authors presented their articles in the book, they carry scientific degrees, working in IPN, but a few of them are persona non grata in Polish Organizations, or between Polish Scientific Circles. INTERNO OF CHOICES: Main topic.  Poles and Holocaust viewed without propaganda according to M. Kozlowski, and reality is: according to Inferno of Choices and explanation of spokesman of MSZ Bosacki, that about 280-300 thousand Poles help the Jews ( Wyjasnienie w spawie
ksiazki Inferno of Choices i artykulow Rzeczypospollitj-2012.08.07).
The reality is that Mr. Bosackii is nor familiar with total approximate number of Poles helping Jews.  The number he refers to is a number of Varsaviens living in Warsaw  helping the Jews, not all Poles living under the German-Nazi occupation. Is this poor choice, too much to said, but pervert and bias, according to the presumptive narrative?  The inaccurate explanation present by Mr. Bosacki is a particular and partial view of the Question, not only by content miss presented,  but also by poor choice of mostly outdated articles written on larger subject with poor choice of documentation. INFERNO OF CHOICES: Content-Interpretations   All of these articles reprinted and abbreviated by Editors were published   from 2003, or later. Some of them were exposé during the
seminars, or part of the larger publications or by choice of Editors abbreviated. Their authors were limited in access to certain and partial scientific resources, or treated their writing as a ways to introduce discussion on the topic in question.   For example ,” In Price of Life: The economic Determinants of Jews’ Existence on theAryan” side, Prof. Grzegorz Berendt as primary source used “account recorded in the archives of the Yard Vashem Institute (p.115).
Question of finding and supplying the food was done according to theconditions in the rural, or city area under the occupational Nazi rules. In such conditions value of currency, or precious metals, or precious stones went up, but goods as
textiles, or leather were more valuable than goods mentioned before.
 On the human side, as mentioned by Mr. Berendt many Poles  without pay hided  their Jewish neighbors (p.144- My mother at many occasions gave food  for free to passing Jews begging them to leave our small house before down fearing Nazi  deadly reappraisals -M.B).  Fortunately, or not the subject presented by Mr. Berendt is limited in scope and resources. There is a lot of scientific literature, archives   and researches done by independent searchers about szmalcowniki  (blackmailers), or unpaid help to the rescue of Jews. (See articles,
Paul, Glaukopis Pl.  Zycie za Zycie  etc).    Mr. Rejak as well as E. Fister should be familiar with research more complete and expositive done on the subject. Unfortunately, they made Inferno choice and picked up marginal articles in limited in scope and resources   about the said question.
    As a total surprise and sui generis curiosum is the exposé  done by psychologue  Barbara Engeling , “Dear Mr. Gestapo”- anonym letters
send to  German authorities._ This is a  classical way  to madden the subject , to use  anonyms  written by unknowns Jews, , Poles , Germans, Ukrains, Belarusians  to blame only may be disgruntled Poles.  These tactics are well known
from Goebbels propaganda and others. If according to Polish MSZ and Barbara Engling to promote the serious research by publishing anonyms is ways to go, so we are in frustrating decay and the pit without exit.
      Mr. Andrzej Zbikowski- a prophylactic Jewish Researcher published many books and articles about the Holocaust subject. His  well
known book is “Ku genezie Jedwabnego. “ In his article published in “Inferno of Choices” about “Anti-Semitism...” at the beginning he said” This article deals with the phenomenon of Polish citizens- individual men and women or, perhaps (sic) also groups or factions of the Polish society –condoning of the policy of oppression of the Jewish people enacted by German invaders.  This phenomenon has historically and inadequately, been termed szmalcownictwo (SIC. Sic p. 182M.B. (money-milking), which referred to the blackmailing of   Jews in hiding.   Is this a translation mistake, or definition of szmalcownictwo as a “condoning of the policy of oppression of the Jewish people enacted by German invaders...? (p.182)For unfamiliar reader: szmalcownictwo is denouncement and blackmailing of Jews to extort their money.
 This subject of blackmailing is a complicated one and controversial. According to the scientific research and serious literature, there
were about 2-3 polish blackmailers in the whole polish population living on occupied Poland. (See M. CHodakiewicz research and others).
 Unfortunately, they are documented but unknown numbers of Jewish szmalcowniki in Warsaw (Hotel polski I Krakow) and other cities
–research of Zebrowski and Chodakiewicz, Baginski). Andrzej Zbikowski, as an expert and long time researcher should be familiar with the articles and research on this subject. 9) To his advantage it should be noted about political collaboration German –Jewish collaboration (Al GL) in order to gain short term advantages. (P. 184). Unfortunately for him, Mr. Zbikowski is not familiar with German law at the time about managing the properties Jewish, ornon Jewish (P.187). To his detriment , Mr. Zbikowski  mentioned  anty Jewish  unrest in 1940,(p.189)but he purposely forgot to add that  Jews in their overwhelming majority were  pro soviet and  against Polish national interest and Polish independence.  Jews, they were considered to be political adversaries, who happen to be Jews. This is a big distinction and forgotten by Jewish research led by A. Zbikowski and others.
 To credit of Mr. Zbikowski is trying to be objective, he motioned the different attitudes of Jews   towards entering Wermacht troops. Namely, when they welcomed Nazi Germans with bread and fruit as a sign of warmly welcome.3.) They produce similar welcome to the Soviet troops   , to the detriment of Poles, who were oppressed by two enemies: Nazi Germans and Soviets. Their neighbors Jews welcomed Poles enemies.
 In all in his article A. Zbikowski   partially depicts war realities, without adequate picture of Jewish attitudes as political adversaries
of Poles.  It lacks a fundamental distinction between nationality, and political convictions an s a primary source of conflict. When we sift
thru the literature on the subject described by A. Zbikowski we find more objective, more archives oriented researches (Paul).
 Unfortunately Editors made a political choice to promote their own point of view promulgated by one-sided stories and proper to the
school mentioned before. Inferno of Choices not quiet, but certainly propaganda and political one. 7)
  The question of Polish Help to Jews “exploded” after publication of Jan T. Gross of “Neighbors” and other one sided articles and brochures on the subject.
     Dr.Marcin Urinowicz from IPN allowed reprinting (   from2006 book) his article “Organized and individual help provided by Poles to Jews exterminated by the German occupiers during the world war II”. Since 2006 there are many documents, books, articles testimonies published on the subject.  Mentioning Council for Aid to Jews, or Zegota is not
only a partial one but also to the detriment of the subject in question. As later explained by Mr. Urinowicz much of the help to Jews
was given in the country side (p.285). Unfortunately Mr. Urinowicz did not mention at all Catholic Church help to Jews, which was unprecedented and so wide spread. There are many documents books; research archives testimonies on the subject. Purposely , probably due to the size  of  the  articles ,abbreviations  by Editors   Mr.Urinowicz  excuses himself saying: “Help given by Poles …still stands in need of detailed research”(P.308).
 This way of choosing this article not justified choice of the Editors, when they picked up partial and certainly outdated article on the subject.
Poor choice: Yes, Propaganda choice yes – to marginalize the Catholic Church-Yes Political one: Yes.  To mention great help of Catholic Church given to the Jews is well published by Ran Paul 3)       “The rescue for the money: Paid Helpers in Poland 1939-1945 written by Jan Grabowski deals with Jews who paid for their hiding, food and other necessities associated with survival. According to Jan Grabowski – persona non grata in certain Polish circles “There is consensus among polish historians that helping the Jews under occupation was a widespread phenomenon”. (p.313). the reason was moral and sometimes monetary one. To pay for food, hiding
shelter, to pay bribes were ways for survival. These payments to Nazis often guaranteed the survival, of rescues and rescuer.   Unfortunately, Mr.
Grabowski” forgot”, about economics or survival and would demand that hero should be in every case. And pretending his uncompromised open handedness.        One of the last articles published in INFERNO OF CHOICES IS: A“SZABER Frenzy”- was WRITEN BY MARCIN Zaremba.
 Szaber is a marginal phenomenon accompanied each and every war, when people taking somebody’s properties, or appropriated abandoned properties as theirs. This is so common according to the “Broken windows” Theory. After war invasion people tend to survival and looting behavior is observed. Jews were taking Polish properties, Poles were taking Jewish properties, Belarusians were taking whatever they can put the hands on. T0 expose a marginal and pathological behavior in the book pretending to be “objective” and series scientific research is at list inappropriate, and is not an occasion to be discussed,
unless we wanted to focus on the margin of the behavior.  In short. The Book “Inferno of Choices “, from our point of view is a miss on the subject.12)   What it does, is promoting certain political agenda of a particular point of view appropriated to Poles of Jewish descent.8)   1. JEDWABINYZM (Yedwabinysm, do not mix with Rabbinism) . This is a sarcastic way to expose inconsistencies nad inuendos , perceptions of the rality promulgated by these ways of thinking - is the term designed exoteric  pseudo historical thinking where imagined process
of certain apparently innovative ideas  were considered   as historical occurrences,   contrary to given and existed facts  . This Pseudo School of Thought is based only on the few non essential and marginal events or other phenomena and presumed to be existed where the casual relationship between them is hart or impossible to established.  Described events bypass the causal relationship between other facts, accuracies, and proof of existence documents creating
historical reality. Many events and facts in Historical Thought of Jedwabinism School  are  accounted where the story telling, myths,  presumptions, innuendos are mixed together and impossible to divide,  but this is reality around us and mutatis mutandis these same rules create historical reality. At End it is so mixed up, that impossible to distinguish myth form reality, Presumption from second look, innuendo from storytelling. All divagations, descriptions confabulations and storytelling are subordinated to main   narrative:  Jews are perpetual victims when others to be perpetual perpetrators. I. Polish diplomacy since 1944 is conducted and influenced by Poles of Jewish origin: a). Polish inteligancia was annihilated by Nazi Germans in General Gubernia-  western part of occupied Poland  annexed  to Nazi Germany- according to the literature about 20-50 thousand of inteligencja  were annihilated there.   b) In Eastern part of Poland- as a result of Gestapo and NKWD meeting in 1939 and 1940 - 24 000 Polish intelligencia were killed in Katyn and les environs. In 1937-1939- In Ukraine and Parts of Soviet Union –Poles were annihilated by Soviet Regime in numbers 0ver 210000. The only reason was: they were Poles, considered as strange elements to the Soviets. In annexed territories by Soviets  after 1939 , they send to Syberia  about 50 thousends of Polish Inteligencia .   c) During 1944, Stalin brought a puppet government of Polish People compromise from Russian Jews Polish Jews and some Polish socialists sympathizers.  So called Polish Diplomacy was conducted by non Poles stirred and totally directed by Soviets.  Over 35% of all employees in diplomacy were non Poles at all.  The key posts were 100% in Non Polish population. In killing of Poles Soviet army was involved like oblawa augustowska in 1944, where over 942 Poles presumably executed in the forests of Augustow.  Security apparatus   and so called “security operations “ of killing adversaries were conducted by NKWD and Soviet soldiers with some help of Polish  discredited  and accommodating to the new set of circumstances.  Polish Berlinig army was decimated and annihilated by gallant and unrehearsed general decision on the end of the war. World II.   c) Jewish Zydokomuna took power and after 1944 about 110000 Poles as socialist adversaries of the new imposed Soviet rule were annihilated by killings, taken to soviet concentration camps, or died in prisons on Polish soil. Special law was passed( decret  sierpniowy- to persecute political adversaries and  enemies of the socialist regime . this law was also applied  against Poles allegedly helping the Nazi Germans, when  Home Army was considered as helping the Nazi Germans ( sic). d) Polish Diplomacy during the socialist area was conducted by non Poles – most these of Jewish origin and living in Poland. Key post in education, commerce mass media, news papers, T.V, theater, entertainment, cinema, political parties were occupied by Poles of Jewish origin. e) Grass roots movements of social, economical and ideological discontent since late sixties (its worth mentioning 1956- Poznan unrest) created unprecedented social movement “Solidarity” of about 10 millions Poles.    Unfortunately the direction and agenda of this movement in 1980 and 1981 was overtaken by Social Left represented by Polish Jews like Geremek, Kuron, Michnik and others(KOR). Social, economical, marasme and changing World political condition in Soviet Union created favorable condition in changing the political environment   in 1989 and 1990 know as Round Tables negotiations.  In scientific terms the recess was defined as “unthothfull state of the country”, where old political elites become businessmen, and so-called “new political” elites accommodated they ways to prosperity.   e). in the early 1990 and later, host of different political parties was created. Some of them with the”cachy” names stronnictwo democratyczne,, some “sofa” parties, a few ridiculed ones , like “Polish Party of Beer drinkers”. None of these parties had a vision or political program proper to Polish National Interest and polish National independence in terms of new conditions created by new phenomenon of European Union. As of now Polish diplomacy conducted by Poles of Jewish origin is “lost”, without any direction. One of the reasons is:  Existed political, intellectual elites were killed during World War II and after.  Brought political elites From Soviet Union were strange and absent in Polish mind, considered as “foreign “objects in Polish social network and socio-economical life. New grown on Polish soil political elites were side sided and excluded from decision a making process by Poles of Jewish origin. This was observed in many fields: scientific, mass media   advancement  of grass roots elites in science, no  international , or domestic grants, no political advancements in diplomacy,  no  promotions in entertainment, or cultural life, no promotions of home grown intellectuals ( except of Jewish origin) in research. The result is an s we see it: lose of direction to the Poland as well, as lose of political direction and the way to vie the future. 4) “They died” Jewish soldiers, the German army and Conservative Debates about Nazi past I the 1960s “They died for Germany” Tim Grady, European History Quarterly 2009 39 p.28 5) Shoah Resource  Center The Transfer agreement and the Boycott Movement 1/33 6)Time Manner, Place: Writing European History in Global Transnational an international contexts, patricia Clavin. European History Quarterly 2010 40 p. 624 7) Commentary: Myths, narratives, and Patterns of Rumors: The construction of Jewish Subversion “and Retributive Violence in 1940-41Romania. Stefan Ionescu Culture and Psychology 2009 15 p.327 8) “The Jews are Coming”: `Vengeance and Revenge in post-Nazi Europe Shai Lavi, Law Culture and Humanities 2005 1 p. 282 9) O kolaborantach polskich socialistow po II wojnie swiatowej , Jan Korytnicki   11).DIFFERENCE OF  OPINION WITH Professor Zdzislaw Mach Head of Research in Institute at Jagielonian University. (Presented at  www.salon 24).
     According to him this book is an extra ordinary and highly scientific research familiarly important questions done by most respected between  the Polish researchers, as well as the articles are based on solid and scientific base approaching the reality without any unfounded generalities, or simplicities. Solid scientific approach is a paramount for the research done in the book- according to Mr. Mach. In sum according to him the book is given differentiated and highly objective view of Polish –Jewish relations .This book suppose to be about identities of Poles and dealing with Polish Passé. According to  Mr. Mach Polish National Identity suppose to be connected with the Holocaust? As well  as Polish collaboration with Nazi to destroy Jewish population.
And according to Prof. Mach our right image is not black and white but nuanced, rich ally differentiated often not univoque. The Reproach  (objection of some treason of Polish interests is an absurd. Complicated   truth is needed to build healthy relationships with our partners.
 The book according to Mr. Mach in different ways is approaching complicated Jewish- Polish relations is right step in a right direction.
 Mr. Professor in view what was said before: either you did not read the book, or questions   written about by authors are totally absent in your research and in your scope of interest, or you wanted to have other that scientific agenda?  II.(12)        A separate problem is the philo-Semitism in diplomacy (see the book by Krzysztof Balinski, Polish or anti-Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs? Ed. Bolonari, Warsaw 2013) and mass media or Jewish circles sites studying and writing about Polish - Jewish relations.6.  9. Inscriptions and the monument(s) Separate histories are inscriptions on the Jedwabne monuments (old one and the new one, or IPN attempted list of the victims killed on July 10. 1941). These inscriptions are such curiosum, that we will analyze them. A monument had been placed in Jedwabne in the 1960s with the inscription: “Site of the Suffering of the Jewish Population. The Gestapo and the Nazi Gendarmerie burned alive 1600 People July 10, 1941.”[66] In March 2001 this memorial stone was removed. A new monument was placed in July 2001, with inscriptions in Polish, Hebrew and Yiddish: To the Memory of Jews from Jedwabne and the Surrounding Area, Men, Women, and Children, Co-inhabitants (co-farmers M.B.) of this Land, Who Were Murdered and Burned Alive on This Spot on July 10, 1941...... July 10, 2001. In Polish the inscription reads: "Pamięci Żydów z Jedwabnego i okolic, mężczyzn, kobiet, i dzieci, współgospodarzy tej ziemi, zamordowanych, żywcem spalonych w tym miejscu 10 lipca 1941...... 10 lipca 2001 r(66) 10. Innuendos, antyjudaism perception and myths about Polish- Jewish Relations.
 At the same time I will not avoid the anti-Polish prejudice due to ignorance propagated between other s in Review Guidelines for films, or theaters, and sometimes ill-will that affect intellectual circles of America.1   In retrospect, it is clear that the failure to engage scientific methods in historical knowledge made ​​it necessary to reinterpret Jewish- Polish relations. Unfortunately, in the words of the Polish intelligentsia, both the Jewish origin as well as of the native, they cannot see the need to distance themselves from the previously unconditional philo-Semitism.
 As far as possible I set myself the goal to indicate and build the platform for Jewish- Polish reconciliation, in partnership with the exclusion of servility against each other.  A separate issue is: as a   sociology student with historical research approach, I wanted to know why the unknown town near  Lomza became “famous “in the entire world? Was it due  only to  one-sided presentation of  the historical truth concerning  Massacre dated 10th July 1941 ,  or were there other  factors which   put  this town  in the map of the world?
At the same time for any price I wanted to avoid   that my deliberations found themselves only in the second cycle of media to reach the public consciousness. Fallowing rigorously the methodological order I wanted to reach still   inaccessible sources and resources in main stream media and pundits.        As a practical matter, we would like to push for total exhumation of the Polish victims of Jewish origin buried in Bronislaw Sleszynski barn and next to it.
 Unfortunately, Jedwabne matter has become a sensitive issue for political reasons. Polish Governmental Authorities(at at list two occasions outside Poland) were engaging their assets into promulgating at least controversial assertions about massacre in Jedwabne imposing one-sided views and stopping exhumation, what is in fact to sink into oblivion of necessary conclusions.   To name the Polish Soil (very difficult to set up the boards) as coursed is a blasphemy for Polish People.     And, the topic of alleged Polish additional complicity in other murders carried on the Jews.  Jedwabne became a pretext for initiating, or avoiding, the debate about Polish-Jewish relations, in particular the Polish responsibility for the Holocaust. 11. Polish Authorities and Massacre of Jedwabne Attitude of Polish Officials, like Ministry of Foreign Affairs, or The President of Poland is a curiosum sui generis. At list on two or more occasions, they engaged in controversial scientific drafts publication as an official governmental stand. More they are financing films, or other public expressions (screen plays) about the massacre the way to promote Jewish narrative about the tragedy.
     Sorry to say, but  in addition, to  the mainstream  of liberal intelligentsia  of Polish- Jewish origin ,   they were  many members of the opposition activists to certain model of communism earlier in communist circles  are  constantly   present   at these days.
 This trend manifested itself especially on the occasion of 1968 events when it was carried out as a purge of anti-Jewish communists from the ranks of the party and from the government. The purge had been done as a clear filosemitic and pro-Israeli sympathies. They were stigmatized, and had to leave the circles of the ruling elites. AT that time a Jewish elite sometimes in fear of alleged criminal sanctions for abuse of the law before 1968 had to leave Poland.  JT Gross was   part of this group.
 On other hand, as you know, this cleansing of 1968 coincided with student demonstrations against the government, which took place in every major academic center in Poland. The Jews were considered victims of hatred of other Jewish Communists according to the striking audience at that time.
This filosemitic sentiment soared amid anti-communist Polish intelligence derived from Litvaks and Polonized Jews after 1968.
 It  came to the force , especially in times of "Solidarity "(1980-1981) to allegedly strengthen  Polish accession to the road  for so called  “full” independence in 1989 , which was , and is seen in diplomacy and  in the mass media over the last 30 years . Awareness of the Jedwabne massacre among the Polish public was very high. A March 2001 poll conducted by the Polish daily Rzeczpospolita found that one-half of Poles were aware of the Jedwabne massacre; among Poles with a higher education the proportion rose to 81 percent. 40 percent of respondents supported Kwaśniewski's decision to apologize for the crime. A majority condemned the actions of the Poles involved in the Jedwabne massacre.[65] In July 2001, on the 60th anniversary of the pogrom, Polish president Aleksander Kwaśniewski attended a ceremony at Jedwabne where he made a speech stating the murderers were Poles whose crime was both against the Jewish nation and against Poland. He said the murderers had been incited by German occupiers, but they alone carried the burden of guilt for their crimes. While ruling out the notion of collective responsibility, he also sought forgiveness "In the name of those who believe that one cannot be proud of the glory of Polish history without feeling, at the same time, pain and shame for the evil done by Poles to others."[62] The ceremony was attended by Catholic and Jewish religious leaders and survivors of the pogrom. Most of the locals of Jedwabne boycotted the ceremony.[63][64] Unfortunaltely According to Wikipedia “ A majority condemned the actions of the Poles involved in the Jedwabne” Massacre.[65]  A separate problem is the philo-Semitism in diplomacy (see the book by Krzysztof Balinski, Polish or anti-Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs? Ed. Bolonari, Warsaw 2013) and mass media or Jewish circles sites studying and writing about Polish - Jewish relations.6.  12. MEDIA  ANGAGEMENT  Prof. Dmitrov  said recenty:: "if I have had today, at the end of the decade from the climactic wave of interest about Jedwabne, to answer one opinion, which it left, I'd say-Memorial Jedwabne. Jedwabne is a memory place, rather than not fully discovered, but previously unexplored about facts and figures. Of course, it is impossible to deny that the debate around Jedwabne, which meant, after all, that many people have tried to get the truth, we know much more about it what occurred in 1941. In fact, however, not so much we went deep in the mystery of the past, how much we dig up and to put in light the stories have long been known to indigent people, but for various reasons, hidden, put under the table, doomed some times to obscurity or presented in accordance with the truth.  Without a doubt Jedwabne functions as a Memorial of awkwardness, because we are speaking about our guilt. However, it seems that for most the past secrecy was Jedwabne was reviled. This case, about which Gross wrote, was known in a very limited circle, and they tried to break the silence (Datner, articles of Wroniszewskis from the 80s) but it ended in a fiasco. Gross as the first exposed the myth, according to which the Poles were only victims as suffering for longer and harder than the other Nations. The other books written by him were accepted with more calm -is it because people were familiar with the topic, with the idea that they can be situations, when we caused the pain to others with our own will?

As already mentioned, if you mention about the pogroms in1941 in public awareness,  Jedwabne comes to mind. Hardly anyone can point out where else similar events accursed.  Jedwabne takes the blame for other towns. The town has become a sinister symbol and it would be good if its inhabitants able to somehow gain, in take in mind but not on the principle: "we (what was found by the researchers) we don’t want to accept." Maybe wouldn't be a bad idea to organize the Jedwabne debate, as suggested by the current mayor, an attempt to address the theme after the years of, irritable media clamor.  The public began to manifest itself in the cultural sphere as taking part in hidden philo-Semitism: popular Jewish music, literature and theater, which has expanded far beyond the intellectual centers of the country - Warsaw and Krakow. Contributed to the intellectual centers are  " Znak,", Wiez  , Gazeta Wyborcza ,  Tygodnik Powszechny , Jesuit Review, not to mention the Otwarta  Rzeczypospolita, or minor centers like  Fronda , or  Niezalezna . On the opposite side we can mention Nasz dziennik, or Nasze Zycie.

Unfortunately, historians of Jewish origin, who wanted to work satisfactorily on topics in question, are, still in captivity of stereotypes created during almost half a century of communist rule, and imprisoned by political correctness fearing the responsibility for implementing the communist rule after 1944.Recent waves exhumations of the Unbroken Soldiers and desire to give that proper burial is a reminder, who killed them.  It suffice to say that at that time 38to 50% of prosecuting personnel (MSZ BBW) consisting form Jews, or Jewish origin. On the long run, in history prospective that can’t escape the responsibility. This could be one of the reasons why intelligence of Jewish origin blame Patriotic Poles for alleged murders of some Jews.
 The exposes and articles of these historians are marked by self imposed censorship and it cannot meet the need of a new perspective on past Jewish- Polish relations. Stereotype and narrative preferred by Jewish opinion-forming environment is in full force as we speak.  13. What they don’t want us to know about the Massacre in Jedwabne "China" justice . The crime in Jedwabne (10 July 1941) was covered by the investigative proceedings in February 1948, and later ones. This first proceeding,  about  massacre   of Jedwabne ws run by District Public Security Office  in Lomża( for other crimes of that sort , there were the subjects of other court proceedings in othewr towns).  In Lomza ,  UB controlled it from top to bottom. The process and  was  controlled and inspected by officers of Jewish origin. No one ,  might  release the results of the investigation that were not prewritten .   Unfortunetlly on the contrary, after the completion of the investigation, before the Court, many of the defendants and witnesses testified.  Due to the  cruel methods, forced confessions  they were  forced  to make false confessions and  admitting the  guilt, which, the Court failed to take into account. The District Court in Lomża considerd this matter on 16-17 May 1949. In the quasi judicial process 22 people sat dowem, 12 of them were convicted for being participants and facilitated the Germans in  killing of about 1200 people of Jewish nationality. Some of these twelve, in the process of Appeal were acquitted( two persons).The remaining defendants  were acquitted. Noting was said   about  Germans collaborator Marian Karolak, he  was brought from Silesia and appointed a German Mayor. Similar the other  people in the administration were appointed as German Board of Directors. First of all  Marian Karolak  and his people went on full cooperation with the Germans, being the main contractors of the German plan for the annihilation of the Jews from Jedwabne.  Criminal, collaborator, has not been found, in 1949, claimed that he died, though as suggested by J.T. Gross,  he survived.  (1) The   first   was Karol Bardon ( he was active in the soviet administration previously in Jedwabne ) Volsdeuche from  Silezia who  cooperated with Germans in crime (as specified in the judgment: which  action was considered to be non-coercive in  characteristics., he was  sentenced for  the death penalty.  Bierut’s Act of grace changed this  death sentence for 15 years in prison. In the file are cited testimonies:  he carried a rifle and demanded from Niebrzydowski the kerosene to burn   Sleszynski’s the barn,’ Guilty verdict was handled to other four persons: [2] George Laudanski who allegedly was an employee at the German military police in Jedwabne (Editor's Note: his “work" consisted of shoe shine to the german Gendarmes. Incidentally, the Court found out unreliable the testimonies of Elijah Gradowski, Abram Boruszczak and Szmul Wasersztejn ' accusing him of murder. ‘Testimony, I signed up was under the pressure, because, I was beaten and mistreated, but in fact it was  so; what I said was forced on me, but despite that he was sentenced to 15 years in prison. [3] Sigmund Laudanski when, his brother (at the hearing not pleaded guilty,  witnesses Borawska and Chrzanowska said  that accused was forced by  Germans to  bring the Jews  on the market, and then from there he fled ', in the process of leading Jews to the barn .” I have not seen 'Żyluk, Laudanski on the market”. [4] Bolesław Ramotowski he admitted that he watched the Jews on the market and to the leading Jews to the barn Sleszynski. Witnesses: Grądzka and Jarnutowska said that Boleslaw RAmotowski have been on the market and taken by the Germans '”. Boleslaw Ramotowski said whatever “: As far as evidence goes, I was forced to sneak on other people, and I was beaten heavily”. [5] Miciura was alelgetelly an employee of the German post gendarmerie in Jedwabne at the time of massacre. He on the hearing before the court pleaded not guilty, he stated that in the testimonies he said what they wanted to, because I didn't want to tell them about my health. '), He was handled 12 years in prison.  The Court said:”Guilty due to his action on the behest of the Germans included including to hold three persons of Jewish nationality and to have   bring them to the place the collection “. [6] Stanislaw Zejer (' the hearing made it clear that the Gestapo told him to lead 2-ch of the Jews, whom he initially took, but by a dropped ', adding ' auditions then ran away home '. Marian Rutkowski: '' I know that during the investigation was Zejer bits and abused ') and he was sentenced to 10 years in prison. [7] Czesław Lipinski at the hearing denied involvement in the crime.  His witnesses was Rybicka, as Godlewski said, t the accused was taken away forcibly by Germans., Natalia Rybicka said: 'Józef Sielawa and accused Czeslaw Lipinski  were took from houses by  German gendarme” as, she saw it. Lipinski said that during the investigations: I was beaten very much. I've said yes, as they demanded from me.') He was sentenced to 10 years in prison.  Another Guilty verdict was handled to those, who acted to the detriment of the civilians of the Jewish nation by watching them on site, where they were ensembeled '. the Court  convicted 5 persons: [8] Władysław Dąbrowski (at the court proceedings he pleaded not guilty), the accused testified that he did not want to gothe market,  but was slapped in the face by German and he forced him to follow him.  In the proceedings he testified to guard the Jews for two hours ' At the court proceedings he said that the content of the testimony during the pre-trial investigation has been forced on him. [9] Feliks Tarnacki, the accused pleaded guilty at trial to guard the Jews on the market for 15 minutes, after he fled. The witnesses: Walczyński, Krystowczyk and Przestrzelski said that the accused at the time of the critical left Jedwabne by bicycle. In the later trial he was acquitted) [10] Roman Gora  (the accused pleaded guilty at trial to guard the Jews on the market for 15 minutes,  Witnesses: Borawska, Mroczkowska have submitted their testimony  that he has been beeten  and that  that German took the accused  by force  with  violence. Gora said during the trial, that he: was beaten very much and so I have spoken under the influence of pain”. [11] Anthony Niebrzydowski admitted only to bring the kerosene Soviet-made to Bardon at his request. [12] Joseph Zyluk at the court hearing he did not admitted and explained that he took a Jew from the mill, and later released him   along the way. At the time of the investigation testified, ' that Jew run away on the route and he went home, and saw the Jews being chased to the Sleszynski’s barn. (Later he was acquitted). All of these five were condemned to 8 years in prison. The judge(1949) in  Jedwabne massacre  has complained on the first day of the trial.  He heared how  they were beaten, how the testimonies were extracted and dictated what they have to say.
"Independent", the Court heard, and lawyers with an understanding of turning directly to Sigismund judge asked if it has ... a medical certificate confirming the incurred injuries. Such a technique  was  as  Laudanski predicted.The process does not give evidence any objective viewer. The fact that Ms. Marianna Supraska testified in the investigation that Laudanski drove a bicicle  when he was  together with the Jews,  as we learned from Professor Thomas Strzembosz in the "Republic"Rzeczypospolita of March 31, 2001.  The court in Lomza  as a reasons for  such judgment stated:: ''in this murder  the  Germans took part  by  dozens of ( witness . J. Sokołowska) in this sometime they were about 68 Gestapo and the local population.  This local population was pulled in to violence. Jews were gathered on the square, where after many excesses, like bearing the monument to Lenin, they were taken to the cemetery, where many of them were shot in the barn Sleszynski, and where they were set on fire. The local population in this number (presented M.B.) and the defendants were taken to participate in terror, as you can see from all the explanations of the accused, wherever they were submitted and with the testimony of witnesses and proven witnesses. The violence used by the Germans to the accused escapes in a small amount in which the critical arrival in Jedwabne and due to the fact that the Jews had to pull out of their homes .The  Germans could not make ensemble  the Jews  due to the relatively small number of them. ''. This  Justification  seems to be  at last un unambiguous one  and clear admitting that Germans terrorized  Poles and forced to participate in the scheduled   by them  massacre. In legal terms the judgment of their guilt and sentencing to long imprisonment is unacceptable, illegal, and that's exactly what the Court decreed.  The Defenders testified to  the Court , and The court  stated saying: 'Some of the defendants as  their excuse  informed thius court  that they were beaten , and it is therefore testimony filed under pressure. Because many of the subjects were indicted at the same time, the public prosecution service and the testimony given here coincide with testimony in the U.B., therefore the submission of claim by the accuser’s testimony under pressure is to be rejected, and that's what said in the U.B. and Prosecutor for the truth be considered. ‘And this is again a violation of the fundamental principles of legal, requiring that the uncertainty (and almost all statements condemned the fact of forcing testimony confirmed) settled in favor of the accused. Statement of Szmul Wasersztajn was unbelievable testimonies as well as Henry Krystowczyk- the NKVD agent, who escaped early from Jedwabne, for fear of being executed and did not witnessed the massacre on July 10 1941. Evidence was given that Jew Elijah Grądkowski (deported then into Russia before) and Boruszczak (he was not a resident of Jedwabne) were not witnesses of the crime. Their information for the above reasons should be treated as supplemental evidence, assuming that the witnesses have only information about the accused, but not pretending to the massacre on July 10 1941.  In this investigation, the court in Lomza did not accuse, or investigate possible other conspirators, like those who fled, or, were murdered after the crime. Carried out in 1948-1949 the proceedings in the requested manner indicate that his purpose was to justify the fact that the Poles were the perpetrators of the crime in jedwabne regardless of the facts. It is clear that no effective effort to explain Germans crime and find and fix germens responsibility was carried out professionally.  On other side, despite the fact that the undenialabely it was a crime carried out by the Germans on Polish citizens of Jewish nationality, not forgetting a few Poles, who were also burned in the barn Sleszynski. The Poles recognized   guilt of crimes done by Germans and investigated by many times.  Unfortunately, among the Germans who planned, organized and realized the brutal massacre, to this day, nobody has been charged or convicted in Poland. If in the context of the facts surrounding the conduct and results of the investigation and trial of 30 some like ' Pole ' is identified with 'Poles ' responsible unenforced, or resulting from the services of Germany reporting offender crimes. (For example, Volksdeuche: Charles Bordon), the officers and employees of the German military police (e.g. Jerzy Tarnacki, Jerzy Laudanski, Miciura), or which are in the service of the German second strongest Gora(German City Board of, co-organizer of the murder, Mayor Marian Karolak and his helpers. Joseph Sobutą), it's not me! I tend to advocate a real Poles, who have had a disaster, that were by the Germans and their auxiliaries  terrorized, armed with sticks and batons and forced to surveillance and convoying of the Jews. And the most for those who in these tragic moments were the circumstances and ways to protect you from the death of a few lives, what examples are documented. According to some, the Perpetrators were convicted and punished. But from 1949 to 2000 and as of 2014, we did not made greater progress in full to recognize all the circumstances of murder in Jedwabne. The impulse to take such action would undoubtedly would  have been provocative to counter the lies, marginality and slander of J.T. Gross.  IPN has implemented such investigation, the executives gave the Prosecutor Ignatiew the power to investigate the massacre, but later they reneged and stopped on the crucial moments being close to the full truth about the massacre.  Crucial question  was missed:          HERMANN SCHAPER QUESTION        A.)Upon the outbreak of war between Germany and the USSR, Reinhard Heydrich ordered his security forces to "cleanse" the border areas of Jews which led to formation of additional Einsatzkommandos. He instructed Nebe to organize massacres (i.e. "self-cleansing") in the Bezier Bialystok district, inspired  unorganized fleiing of Soviets and NKWD collaborators.Nebo oriented his commanders including Brinker on their new duty on July 2 and 3, [34] but cautioned that the SS should leave "no trace" of its involvement in the pogroms.[35] The German prosecutors found no hard evidence implicating Birkner, who supposed to be man in charge of this selfcleansing in Lomza erea,  but in the course of their investigation  they discovered new German witness, SS Kreiskommissar of Łomża von Gaben , who named the Gestapo paramilitary Einsatzgruppe B under SS-Obersturmführer Hermann Schaper deployed in the area. The methods used by Schaper's death squad in the Radziłów massacre were identical to those employed in Jedwabne only three days later suggesting their specific involvement in that pogrom also. "The evidence collected by the West Germans, including the positive identification of Schaper by witnesses from Łomża, Tykocin, and Radziłów, suggested that it was indeed Schaper's men who carried out the killings in those locations. Investigators also suspected, based on the similarity of the methods used to destroy the Jewish communities of Radziłów, Tykocin, Rutki, Zambrów, Jedwabne, Piątnica and Wizna between July and September 1941 that Schaper's men were the perpetrators." — Alexander B. Rossino[36] During the subsequent German investigation at Ludwigsburg in 1964, Hermann Schaper lied to interrogators that in 1941 he had been a truck driver. Legal proceedings against the accused were terminated on September 2, 1965. However, Schaper's case was reopened in 1974. During the second investigation, Count van der Groeben testified that it was indeed Schaper who conducted mass executions of Jews in his district. In 1976 a German court in Giessen (Hessen), pronounced Schaper guilty of executions of Poles and Jews by the commando SS Zichenau-Schröttersburg. Schaper was sentenced to six-year imprisonment, but was soon released for medical reasons.[37] According to German federal prosecutors, the documentation of his investigation is no longer available and, it has most likely been destroyed.  The murderers  route of the SS in the summer of 1941 can be rebuilt at the end of June: Wizna, June 30, Wąsosz, July 7 Radziłów, 10 July Jedwabne, in August (exact date) Łomża, around August 22, Tykocin, Rutki-4 September The name: Hermann Schaper. Last place of residence: unknown. Perhaps Lüneburg or Lüdenscheid, Germany. In any event, something on the Lu ... So says a witness, who spoke with him in 1979. But 22 years ago lost traces of this man. Who can know his fate?Presumably dead. Already then he was chronically ill, suffered from the prostate. (A) may, however, still alive. Patients on the prostate sometimes they can live to ripe old age. If still alive, is recently, on 12 August, if he was personally their nineties. Place of birth: Strasbourg in Alsace, in 1911, belonging to the German Reich, from 1919 to the French Republic. A German reader learns not so gross, that terrible number of 1,600 victims is many times too high, learns nothing about the exhumation, about finding scales of the German guns and German officer pistol. A German reader learns not to test IPN in the documentation center Nazi Crimes in Ludwigsburg.Experts from the Ludwigsburg before 40 years ago have discovered that SS Einsatzkomando under the command of Hauptsturmführer Hermann Schaper from late June to early September 1941. They  launched  at least in  six villages  near  Łomża County  the action "the liquidation of the Jews."   Court in  Ludwigsburg.  In Ludwigsburg circuit court from almost forty years ago, the counsel Opitz, whose name is unknown, was a matter  heared : "the extermination of the Jews" in the Łomża (files no. 5 AR-13/62). Opitz leaned his accusations  primarily on the statements of the members of the SS who were interviewed twenty years after the event, as well as the statements of the surviving Jews, who mostly lived in Israel. He  did not have at the disposal of the Polish Acts. The diplomatic relations between the FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY (or even if it was said the NRF) and PRL, were not  proven to the cooperation between two  justice systems. Opitz has determined that, in this circle "action against the Jews" carried out the Einsatzkomando SS Zichenau-Schröttersburg. Zichenau called the German occupiers in Ciechanów, Schröttersburg and Płock. SS commando was ordered to fill the "security vacuum" police in the area of Łomża and carry out "purge", as it was in Nazi language. It was all about the murder of the Jewish population. Route the murderers of the SS in the summer of 1941 gives a good rebuilt both on the basis of German documents, as well as through the  testimonies of witnesses: at the end of June Wizna, July 3-4, Wąsosz, July 7, Radziłów, 10 July, in August (exact date) Łomża, around August 22, Tykocin, on 4 September. Also listed are "Jewish action" in Zambrów and Borki. Einsatzkomando took  place according to the same schema as in many other villages in the area from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea, in present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova experimentally-minded primarily from local "pits" young men  promised the spoils and impunity. They used the traditional anti-Semitism in these countries. The Government and the Church in Poland before the second World War II anti-Semitic sentiment strengthened that instigate a Soviet occupation from September 1939 to June 1941, because in the eyes of many Poles  suspected and experimented  the collaboration of Jews  with the soviets  and even with the Nazis. Nazi command well knew these moods. Reinhard Heydrich, one of the commanders of the SS, wrote in his despatches from 1 July 1941: "the Poles residing in these areas will be on the basis of their experience,  will be antykomunsts and antyjewish. Recommended the use of appropriately  to encourage  Poles as "the initiating element to masacres". This order was also the Commander of the Zichenau Einsatzkomando-Schröttersburg, a former member of the criminal Schaper. According to witnesses he was personally " seen  by a Jewesess at least distant from  Jedwabne  of 15 kilometres  in Radzilow .and 30 kilometres away toTykocin. All this was  learned by  judicial counsel Opitz from Israeli authorities. Received with Tel Aviv report (REF. P. Ain. -0189) Bureau of investigation to the prosecution of Nazi crimes by Israeli police staff, drawn up in German on January 23, 1963, by the founder and  promoter  lawyer  Derschowitz.  Einsatzkomando Responsibility Israeli offices  found the  survivors of the "SS Einsatzkomando" in both places. Chaja Finkelstein from Radziłow, living in Haifa Technical University, they showed her  20 photos of Nazi officers.  She Indicated  Schaper on the two pictures  and said: "I saw him  on the market as he gave  orders". Germany used at the same time as the Israelis agreed, appointed by each of the Polish auxiliary police. Also group the local population took part in the hunt for the Jews. And Polish an accomplice, as it is now known, have committed particularly shocking atrocities. During the test case seat is the Israeli officials interrogated Izchak Feler. He also identified Schaper based on the  photos. Israeli officials, however, have not been able to find then eyewitness  in Jedwabne. In Israeli archives, including Yad Vashem, are further relationships on the crimes committed by the Einsatzkomandos in eastern Poland. On the basis of the information from Tel Aviv and protocols of interrogation of German officers Opitz Ludwigsburg came to the conclusion that Schaper’s Einsatzkomando was also responsible for mass murder in Jedwabne. This is also from the operational area plans, because storm troopers acted before and after July 10, 1941 in neighboring towns.  The proceeding was discontinueD Opitz has sent its report to the public prosecutor's Office in Hamburg, which in 1964 initiated an investigation against Schaper due to the murder of the Jews in the vicinity of Łomża (files no 141 Js 223/64). Schaper lived then in Hamburg, as a  apartment tenaNt  on Kröger on the Strandweg 9, in the elegant district of Blankenese.  It is worth to remark , that  he  immediately after the war disappeared and  lived under a false name Karl Bielinski in different places. In 1953, however, officials in Hamburg have found that the name is fake (files no. 9 Js 2759/53).      During questioning by the public prosecutor of the city in 1964 as a profession Schaper gave "office worker”. However, denied that ever heard the name of the village of Radziłów, Rutki, Zambrów, Jedwabne and Wizna. Then he tripped over in, too: once he  said that he was the driver, another time, he was in charge of administrative affairs in Lomza, yet another time, he had to prosecute double agents.  An other lead to confirm Schaper’s presence in Jedwabne is : Count von der Groeben Head of the German civil administration in Lomza,  he testified to the Protocol and  have heard that Schaper was  in lead to kill the Jews. The proceeding was discontinued on September 2, 1965, due to a lack of evidence. In support of the Hamburg Senior Attorney wrote that it is true that survivors of Radziłow recognized  Schaper  in the driver seat for killing the Jews. However, as experience shows, in identifying on the basis of the  pictures  it is possible to make a mistake. As the German Attorney stated: "even though the Schaper oversaw the collection of Jews, it still does not prove that they knew that they  will be killed, and what only  if he alone in this killing was somewhere". Also the statement of the count von der Groeben did not constitute proof.  Unfortunatelly ,it was the  time when most German prosecutors not  paid particular attention, to accuse the Nazi perpetrators. But later  ten years later for  committed crimes in Poland circuit court sentenced him to the prison  of six years. Even , in 1974, he spent several months in jail before his lawyer managed to arrange his release.The Court was of the opinion that there is no danger of escape, Schaper presenting itself as a respectable citizen who put on time to all hearing. At that time he was already  on pansion  and retired for health resons , before the age of 65 years. His prostate disorders escalated.  He Had to be excused from the judicial , wearing a diaper, what  suppose to be  was embarrassing for him. However, he  tried to keep him  active in  the outdoors  despite his alleged health problems.   Court Convistion  Finally  he was Sentenced to six years in the Court in Giessen in Hesse, said ultimately "the Gestapo" in 1976, that he and four other members of the commando unit of the SS Zichenau-Schröttersburg are guilty of "complicity in murder on the Poles and the Jews." The main culprits were Nazi superiors, who released the man without respect to the laws and regulations. However, the defendants have yet to understand that "the provisions of criminal law for the poles" (Polenstrafrecht), as well as repression of the Jews were "moral collapse" and were illegal. They operated from racial hatred, and the "low motives". Schaper was sentenced to six years, but his attorney filed a review and a former Hauptsturmführer SS remained free, because there's no danger of escape. The lawyer argued that Schaper cannot be accused of racial hatred, because he claimed that amongst his friends there are a few Jews. And besides, he only carried out orders. This argument allowed Schaper and his lawyer to win a Federal Court in Karlsruhe. The judges considered that on the Court Schaper Giessen checked sufficiently alleged "racial hatred", and passed it to another Chamber. The second process, however, never happened because the State of health of the 68-year-old then Schaper deteriorated enough that, on the basis of a medical certificate could not participate in the hearing. During the process of Giessen came to light that the Gestapo archives from the Zichenau-Schröttersburg were in Polish hands. When the Red Army in summer 1944, gone west much faster than expected that Germany, one of the storm troopers was given the task of destroying the file. He ordered all loaded on a truck, which, however, probably in a panic he abandoned in the forest. Only recently we found that files of the gestapo are presumably in the archives of the Ministry of internal affairs in Warsaw. Only a fraction has been previously reviewed.   Was this 100%  proved , or moral surety   However, in May 2001, almost 60 years after the crime, such evidence was found in the form of nearly 100 shells and several rounds of rifle and pistol. Experts have examined the area where the constant, namely the IPN barn, which spent have been victims. At the beginning of the Jewish Association of municipalities in Poland protested against it, because it disturbs the peace of the dead. Eventually, a compromise was found, was kicked by the trench area, rabbis refused to work during the prayer for the dead. Experts have discovered not only the remains of the victims, but also found ammunition. Since only a small part of the Tomb has been examined, experts do not exclude that there are still a few hundred further scales (p.e. 1984: Lech Kaczynski prevented the completion of the research, which caught the attention of Ms. halszka in a comment below). Ammunition came from German rifles "Mauser", the year 1938, and with a pistol "Walter", worn by German officers. There are no indications that the shots are cast in another day than this July 10. It is true that changed occupants during the war – first Germany, then the Red Army, Germany again, and finally  Red army again, but  Jedwabne was never has  been a direct area of hostilities. The same thesis, that Germany does not take an active part in the murder of Jews in Jedwabne, was seriously undermined , or rather is completely  disproved – M.B.).  As a curiosum,In the introduction of German edition of Naighbours,  Jan T. Gross writes that it did not  has made any changes to the original issue: "there is nothing that I would like to add to the speech of issue of the original" in in his German edition  of Naighbours. J.T. Gross does not refer to that  fact , or Schaper story  in his German edition  of Naighbours. Gross’s omissions  are  on the marginality and plain wrongs, nonexistent facts  exposed , essentials hiden..   Files Hauptsturmführer http://web.archive.org/web/2007112401403.....a_a_1.html Currently several Polish historians are interested  about Schaper story. One of them found the files Hauptsturmführer Schaper. Previous archival materials, which include both official documents and witness statements indicate that the Schaper probably led the "liquidation action of Jews in Jedwabne”on July 10, 1941. It  was a hot summer day. On the opposite  of the  side of the white  church with two towers  several passenger cars stopped. It was said  that  about  eight to twelve men got aut. A few wore uniforms, others  may be in  civil cloths. They spoke German. One of them was most likely Schaper. Opinions on what exactly happened in Jedwabne from the arrival of the Germans to the sunset, when the smoke and  stink of burned bodies covered the little town of Jedwabne. Exactly 22 years later the authorities placed a commemorative plaque  next to  the road, where a burnt barn once was. The plaque reads: "Place of execution of the Jewish population. The Gestapo and Nazi gendarmerie burned alive 1600 people ".  Excavations have shown that the barn could not be burned 1600 people, as the plaque was originally from 1963, but about 200. Other mass graves, which are described in the book, apparently do not exist. In a mass grave in Jedwabne they  found jewelry , coins, including the Golden Rubles . The Prosecutor, who was investigating the mass grave again, believes: "1600 is only symbolic." Despite this international media are reapiting this shocking number.  NAturaly from moral and legal, or criminal  this is not  justifilble  to  comit such massacre like in Jedwabne ,– no matter whether there were 250 or 1,600 victims.  But this is  important however for the reconstruction of events. 14. Marginal and ideological approach to the Jewish – Polish relations  Unfortunately,  so far about the Jewish  questions  so called “correct “ writings can be made by only Jews , or scientists  related to them. Such ways of thinking is and was in Poland at the time of publishing the Neighbors (MSW involvement in the dispute by sending unproven materials about Jedwabne, or scratches of articles about alleged Polish blackmailers in 2006, 2013). Following the publication of Neighbors, most of the Polish intelligentsia gathered around the mentioned centers automatically accepted description of the mass murder in Jedwabne according to the version of Jan Tomasz Gross. This was not surprising, considering their Litwack past, as also strongly filosemitic atmosphere among intellectuals of Jewish ancestry.
Hence the Polish media 2. Run by people associated with Jewish circles swept the true under the rug and went on the waves of purification apology for alleged Polish cooperation in the Shoah.
If the events in Jedwabne actually occurred as written by JT Gross, the Poles were complicit, and the Jews were only the victims of World War II. Apologies of Polish  Authorities( in 2001 ceremony  )of Jewish origin    indicated   the necessity  to   reinstall and reexamine  the  " inventory " of national myths  , and  believes in Polish innocence and victimhood in World War II.   Put it simply, assuming that description of the events in Jedwabne according to the Gross’s version, inherently liberal Jewish Polish intelligentsia applauded support for the Jewish- Polish reconciliation on the basis of complicity in murder of Jews. This interpretation - as active participation in the Holocaust - required that the Poles accept a completely new historical narrative - as have been mentioned – to take share in the blame.  Most, if not all the expressions in the media about the Jedwabne is promulgating that narrative. It urges Poles to beat their breast for the undone sins. In all, it's not just that the Poles know the enormity of their alleged or imaginary guilt. There are other nations a side of Germens, who could shear the faith of Poles, except the Jews.    Fortunately, there is still the scientific integrity, which requires that all evidence has been critically analyzed and the course of events to be played in the most close to the reality. If political correctness and propaganda requirements are more important than the reality we could be in trouble not knowing the reality around us. With tools now available we hope that only one true will emerge from Jedwabne massacre on 10th July 1941.
 Meanwhile, according to the rules of fair play - the matter of reconciliation must be and should be strengthen the historical truth and actual condition of the actors. This attitude is adopted by some scientists, but did not sink in to political power yet.  15. Ways to go in the topic of Jewish –Polish Relations
    Few  research efforts undertaken in Poland have identified a number of methodological and substantive shortcomings’ of Neighbors. As a result of a partial exhumation, and to too few reliable studies undertaken in the murder in Jedwabne, we are lost in the endeavor to know the reality there. Despite that the reputation of Jan Tomasz Gross is seriously damaged, as well as   his followers, but also question of Jewish- Polish reconciliation was stalled. In retrospect, it is clear that the failure of scientific methods in historical knowledge made ​​it necessary to reinterpret Jewish- Polish relations. Unfortunately, in the words of the Polish intelligentsia, both the Jewish origin as well as of the native cannot see the need to distance themselves from the previously unconditional philo-Semitism and Gross’s confabulations.
What's more, it also led to the detriment of the  presentation of Jewish- Polish and Jewish-Christian relation in the U.S., as well as changing  attitudes in  Jewish  and in Polish communities. Unfortunately, the USA media and academia began to reproduce Gross’s innuendos, insulations, half-truths.  These circumstantial and unfounded Gross’s confabulations are to greater extent in USA, than in Poland. Marginal simplicity, insinuations, presumptions, bizarre historiography, Gross‘s stereotypes have become the subject of scientific research,   projects for symposiums and written theses on these pseudo-topics. 16. Others about Massacre in Jedwabne   It is right to mention also the book of Fr. Niekrasz about Jedwabne, as well as some articles of prof. Strzembosz, or J. Radzilowski, and a few others.  As well As Chodakiewicz’s article Research before Conclusion
 The rest of the  writings  about 2,5 million are  rather  the reproduction thoughts already  pronounced , as well as of moral outpourings of propaganda and political  narrative , insinuating  sometimes Poles  complicity in  the murder of Jews in Jedwabne ,  and be proxy to talk about Polish participation in the  murder of Jews elsewhere. In the ocean of writings and exposes, my main aim is;  To supplement these  deficiencies (especially not covered by the Professor. Chodakiewicz ), and others ,if possible,  I will re-examine   the story of the massacre in Jedwabne, and to  determine the time between subsequent stages of the crime, confronting the facts , documents, showing the  myths and emphasizing non-existent facts , or events , to provide evidence ,  from still living witnesses .  I wanted to indicate the  background (if any) about  Polish prejudices and stereotypes which are deeply rooted in the literature, culture and mass media, or politics .At the same time I will try to observe the delicate and controversial issue of coexistence  between Polish and Jewish communities, preceding the tragic events in Jedwabne.   Marian Baginski email: marian.baginski@gmail.com  or www.internationalresearchcenter.org Notes 1.       P.A.I.C., The Jedwabne Tragedy. Polish Academic Information Center, University of Buffalo, 2000. 2.       Public Prosecutor Radosław J. Ignatiew (July 9th , 2002), Jedwabne: Final Findings of Poland's Institute of National Memory. Communiqué. Polish Academic Information Center, University of Buffalo. Retrieved June 30, 2013. 3.       IPN, "Komunikat dot. postanowienia o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie zabójstwa obywateli polskich narodowości żydowskiej w Jedwabnem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r." Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, ul. Towarowa 28, 00-839 Warszawa. (Polish) 4.       Michlic, Polonsky, ibidem. "Memories and Methodologies," page 306. 5.       Jedwabne, July 10th, 1941: an Interview with Pawel Machcewicz, Director, Office of Public Education, Institute of National Memory info-poland.buffalo.edu 6.       http://www.ipn.gov.pl/portal.php?serwis=en&dzial=55&id=131&search=5667 7.       Contested memories By Joshua D. Zimmerman, Rutgers University Press - Publisher; page 67-68 8.       Antisemitism By Richard S. Levy, ABC-CLIO - Publisher; page 366 9.       Alexander B. Rossino, Polish 'Neighbors' and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa, Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 (2003). Internet Archive. Referenced citations: #58. The Partisan: From the Valley of Death to Mount Zion by Yitzhak Arad; #59. The Lesser of Two Evils: Eastern European Jewry under Soviet Rule, 1939-1941 by Dov Levin; and #97. Abschlussbericht, 17 March 1964 in ZStL, 5 AR-Z 13/62, p. 164. 10.   Laurence Weinbaum, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Penitence and Prejudice: The Roman Catholic Church and Jedwabne Jewish Political Studies Review 14:3-4. Fall 2002. 11.   United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Bibliographies. Poles: Introduction 12.   "Israel Gutman". Wiez.free.ngo.pl. 1941-07-10. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 13.   http://www.jewishgen.org/Yizkor/Jedwabne/Yedwabne.html Jedwabne Yizkor book, published in Jerusalem in 1980. 14.   Jewish Historical Institute community database http://www.jhi.pl/en/gminy/miasto/137.html. 15.   Kitchen, Martin (1990). A World in Flames: A Short History of the Second World War. Longman. p. 74. ISBN 0-582-03408-6. "The joint invasion of Poland was celebrated with a parade by the Wehrmacht and the Red Army in Brest Litovsk" 16.   Raack, Richard (1995). Stalin's Drive to the West, 1938-1945. Stanford University Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-8047-2415-6. "The generals of the two invading armies went over the details of the prearranged line that would mark the two zones of conquest for Germany and Soviet Russia, subsequently to be rearranged one more time in Moscow. The military parade that followed was recorded by Nazi cameras and celebrated in the German newsreel: German and Soviet generals cheek by jowl in military homage to each other's armies and victories." 17.   Tec, Nechama (1993). Defiance: The Bielski Partisans. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-509390-9. 18.   (Polish) The 90th session of the Senate of the Republic of Poland. Stenograph, part 2.2. A Report by Leon Kieres, president of the Institute of National Remembrance, for the period from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001. Donald Tusk presiding. 19.   Alexander B. Rossino, Polish 'Neighbors' and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa, Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 (2003). See citation #43: Michal Gnatowski, "W radzieckich okowach: studium o agresji 17 wrzesnia 1939 r. i radzieckiej polityce w regionie Łomzynskim w latach 1939-1941" (Łomza: Łomzynskie Tow. Nauk. im. Wagów, 1997), p. 115. Among the 22,353 deportees, were families from around Białystok, Jedwabne, Łomża and Wizna. 20.   Sanford, p. 23; (Polish) Olszyna-Wilczyński Józef Konstanty, Encyklopedia PWN. Retrieved 14 November 2006. 21.   Prof. Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski, "Jedwabne: The Politics of Apology", presented at the Panel Jedwabne – A Scientific Analysis, Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences in America, Inc., June 8, 2002, Georgetown University, Washington DC. 22.   Jerzy Lukowski, Hubert Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland, page 261. 23.   Christopher R. Browning, Jurgen Matthaus, The Origins of the Final Solution, page 262. Publisher University of Nebraska Press, 2007. ISBN 0-8032-5979-4 24.   June 29, 1941, Warsaw - Order No.1 of Reinhard Heydrich to the Einsatzgruppen Commanders on "Self-cleansing" Operations and the Role to be Played in the Same by German Military and Police Forces (excerpts), Page 21 in "Inferno of Choices," http://www.londyn.polemb.net/gallery/zdjecia/zdjecia6/book_INFERNO%20OF%20CHOICES.pdf 25.   Michael C. Steinlauf. Bondage to the Dead. Syracuse University Press, p. 30. 26.   Paweł Machcewicz, "Płomienie nienawiści", Polityka 43 (2373), October 26, 2002, p. 71-73 The Findings 27.   Tomasz Strzembosz, "Inny obraz sąsiadów", Rzeczpospolita, article stored by the Internet Archive. Quote in Polish: "Osobnym problemem są mieszkańcy miasteczka wymieniani podczas zeznań składanych na ręce funkcjonariuszy Urzędu Bezpieczeństwa. A to z tego powodu, że zeznania te, właśnie w tym punkcie, były gremialnie odwoływane na sali sądowej jako wymuszone torturami." 28.   According to the deposition of Józef Żyluk (signed on January 15, 1949 during interrogation at the Ministry of Public Security office in Łomża), the men assembled "under the threat of death" 29.   "Wirtualny Sztetl. Kolno - historia." Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich 30.   "Polin - dziedzictwo polskich Żydów. Kolno - info." Fundacja Ochrony Dziedzictwa Żydowskiego 31.   IPN Communiqué. Final findings. Postanowienie o umorzeniu sledztwa. Facsimile of the original document in full. Institute of National Remembrance, June 30, 2001. PDF file, direct download 25.4 MB. (Polish) 32.   Gross, Neighbours p. 17-18 (Polish edition) 33.   Paweł Machcewicz, professor of history at the Warsaw University, Wokół Jedwabnego, 2002; see: excerpt in "The Jedwabne Case" ABSTRACTS, translated by Christina Manetti, Institute of National Remembrance, Poland 34.   Alexander B. Rossino, historian at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. (2003). "Polish 'Neighbors' and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa". Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry 16. "Cited by Bogdan Musial in: "Konterrevolutionäre Elemente sind zu erschiessen": Die Brutalisierung des deutsch-sowjetischen Krieges im Sommer 1941, (Berlin: Propyläen, 2000), pp. 32, 62." 35.   Piotr Wróbel (2006). "Polish-Jewish Relations". Dagmar Herzog: Lessons and Legacies: The Holocaust in international perspective (Northwestern University Press). pp. 391–396. ISBN 0-8101-2370-3. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 36.   Rossino, Alexander B. (2003). "Polish 'Neighbors' and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa". Polin 16. Note 97. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. "Cited in German court hearing: Vernehmung von Oberregierungsrat Graf von dem G., 2 September 1960. ZStL, 5 AR-Z 13/62, p. 11." 37.   Thomas Urban, reporter of the Süddeutsche Zeitung; Polish text: "Poszukiwany Hermann Schaper", in Rzeczpospolita, Sept 1-2, 2001 38.   "Manslaughter of Jewish Inhabitants of Jedwabne." Institute of National Remembrance. Warsaw, Poland. Publication date: 18 November 2003. 39.   Gross, Jan Tomasz (2000). Sąsiedzi. Historia zagłady żydowskiego miasteczka (in Polish). Sejny: Pogranicze. ISBN 83-86872-13-6. 40.   Antony Polonsky, Joanna B. Michlic. "Chronology: December 1966" (Google books preview). The Neighbors Respond: The Controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland. Ibidem: Princeton University Press. p. 452. Retrieved November 10, 2012. 41.   Jedwabne postanowienie (resolution). IPN Gov.pl PDF file, direct download. 42.   Rabbi Jacob Baker, "We Trusted Each Other" Polish Academic Information Center, University of Buffalo. 43.   IPN (July 17, 2003). "Insight Into Tragedy" (Internet Archive). The Warsaw Voice Monthly. 44.   Findings of Investigation S 1/00/Zn into the Murder of Polish Citizens of Jewish Origin in the Town of Jedwabne on 10 July 1941, pursuant to Article 1 Point 1 of the Decree of 31 August 1944. In: Antony Polonsky & Joanna B. Michlic, eds. The Neighbors Respond: The Controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland. Princeton University Press, 2003. 45.   Paweł Machcewicz, Krzysztof Persak, Wokół Jedwabnego, Instytut Pamięci Narodowej – Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu. Vol.1: Studia, 525 pages; Vol.2: Dokumenty, 1,034 pages, Warsaw, 2002. See: Google bibliogroup. ISBN 8389078082. 46.   IPN, A communiqué regarding the decision to end the investigation of the murder of Polish citizens of Jewish nationality in Jedwabne on 10 July 1941. (Komunikat dot. postanowienia o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie zabójstwa obywateli polskich narodowości żydowskiej w Jedwabnem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r.) Instytut Pamięci Narodowej IPN, ul. Towarowa 28, 00-839 Warszawa; dated 30 June 2003. (Polish) 47.   Elżbieta Południk, Andrzej Kaczyński, Wyniki śledztwa w sprawie Jedwabnego - Jednak sąsiedzi, Rzeczpospolita, 10 June 2002 48.   Jędrysik Miłada (2006-07-09). "Jedwabne i "Strach"". Gazeta Wyborcza. Retrieved January 1, 2012. 49.   Elazar Barkan, Elizabeth A. Cole, Kai Struve (Band V - 2007). "Shared History - Divided Memory. Jews and Others in Soviet-Occupied Poland, 1939-1941" (PDF direct download, 796 KB). Leipziger Beitrage zur Judischen Geschichte und Kultur. Leipzig: Simon - Dubnow - Institut. p. 8. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 50.   Sylvie Kauffmann (19 December 2002). "Poland faces up to the horror of its own role in the Holocaust | Education". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 51.   Bogdan Musial, "The Pogrom in Jedwabne: Critical Remarks about Jan T. Gross' Neighbors", pp. 304-343; in Michlic and Polonsky, The Neighbors Respond (ibidem). 52.   Joanna Michlic, Antony Polonsky, The Neighbors Respond. Princeton University Press – Publisher. Chapter: Official Statements, page 135, and Bogdan Musial, in "Memories and Methodologies," page 334. 53.   Tomasz Strzembosz, 'Jedwabne 1941,' http://www.antyk.org.pl/ojczyzna/jedwabne/strzembosz.htm 54.   Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, 'Research Before Conclusion: The Problems of Shock Therapy in Jedwabne,' http://glaukopis.pl/pdf/czytelnia/ResearchBeforeConclusion.pdf 55.   The neighbors respond: the controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland By Antony Polonsky, Joanna B. Michlic. Page 134 Princeton University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-691-11306-8 56.   Polonsky, A., & Michlic, J. B. (2004). The neighbors respond: the controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11306-8 57.   Marshall Poe (November 8, 2012). "Marek Jan Chodakiewicz: The Massacre in Jedwabne, July 10, 1941: Before, During, After, Columbia University Press, 2005". Interview with Marek Jan Chodakiewicz. New Books in History. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 58.   Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (2005). The massacre in Jedwabne, July 10, 1941: Before, During, After. University of Michigan: East European Monographs. ISBN 0880335548. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 59.   Professor Peter D. Stachura (February 6, 2008). "Jedwabne: A reply to Antony Polonsky & Joanna Michlic" (PDF direct download, 69.8 KB). Review of Professor Marek Jan Chodakiewicz’s monograph, The Massacre in Jedwabne, July 10, 1941: Before, During, and After (East European Monographs, Boulder, CO.; distributed by Columbia University Press, New York, 2005). New York: The Centre for Research in Polish History, University of Stirling. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 60.   List of articles on Jedwabne compiled by Rzeczpospolita. 61.   'Thou Shalt not Kill,' Poles on Jedwabne, 34 articles http://wiez.free.ngo.pl/jedwabne/main.html 62.   "President Kwasniecki's Speech at the Jedwabne Ceremony". Radzilow.com. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 63.   Kate Connolly in Berlin (11 July 2001). "Poland says sorry for slaughter of Jews | World news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 64.   "President Kwasniewski's Speech at the Jedwabne Ceremony". Dialog.org. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 65.   Wiemy i potępiamy (We know, and we condemn). Republic of Poland. Archives. 66.   Alvin H. Rosenfeld, ‘Facing Jedwabne.’ American Jewish Committee. Retrieved November 8, 2012. 67.   "David Miliband's insult to Michal Kaminski is contemptible | The Jewish Chronicle". Thejc.com. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 68.   "Analysis: Kaminski is our friend - this is a smear campaign | The Jewish Chronicle". Thejc.com. 2010-11-08. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 69.   Accusing Euro-sceptics of anti-Semitism is the most shameful tactic yet by Daniel Hannan On Daily Telegraph website 70.   Nathan, John. "Our Class and the bloody history of Poland that refuses to die", The Times, September 11, 2009. 71.   Cavendish, Dominic. "Is Our Class at the National Theatre really such a reliable history lesson?", The Daily Telegraph, November 9, 2009. 72.   "Poland asks Jews for forgiveness on 70th anniversary of Yedvabne massacre". Haaretz. 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2011-07-11. Biography :Jan T. Gross was born in Warsaw, Poland, in 1947 to Hanna Szumańska, a Polish mother, who was a member of the Polish resistance (Armia Krajowa)[1] and Zygmunt Gross, a Polish Jewish father who was a PPS member. His mother, risking her own life, helped his father to survive the German Nazi occupation of Poland. They married after the war. Jan Tomasz Gross studied physics at the Warsaw University. He was among the young dissidents called Komandosi, and consequently among the university students involved in the protest movement known as the "March Events," the Polish student and intellectual protests of 1968. Gross was expelled from the university, arrested and jailed for five months. As a consequence, and because the Polish government permitted the emigration of "people of Jewish origin" at that time, he emigrated with his parents to the United States in 1969.[2] In 1975 he earned a Ph.D. in sociology from Yale University, and has taught at Yale, NYU, and Paris. He acquired U.S. citizenship and currently teaches history at Princeton University.Gross was awarded the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland in 1996,[3] an award granted to foreigners for their exceptional role in cooperation between Poland and other nations. He was also a Senior Fulbright Research, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial, and Rockefeller Humanities Fellow. Gross came to public attention on the occasion of his several publications. Then he was in the center of a controversy due to the publication of his 2001 book on the Jedwabne massacre, Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland, which examined a massacre of the Polish Jews in Jedwabne village in German-occupied Poland. In his book Gross writes that the massacre was perpetrated by Poles and not by the German occupiers, as previously assumed. The claims were the subject of vigorous debate in Poland. Norman Finkelstein accused Gross of exploiting the Holocaust.[4] Norman Davies describes "Neighbors" as "deeply unfair to Poles".[5] A subsequent investigation conducted by the Polish Institute of National Remembrance did not support Gross' thesis on issues such as the number of people murdered,[6] and the extent of Nazi German involvement in the massacre. Gross' Fear - Anti-Semitism in Poland after Auschwitz, which deals with antisemitism and violence against Jews in post-war Poland was published in the United States in 2006 and had received praise in the United States; its Polish version, published in 2008, got mixed media reception restarting a nationwide debate about antisemitism in Poland during World War II and after.[7] The book has been welcomed by some Polish historians and criticized by others who do not deny the facts Jan Gross presented in his book, but dispute his interpretation.[8][9] Marek Edelman, one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising said in an interview with the Gazeta Wyborcza daily, "Postwar violence against Jews in Poland was mostly not about anti-Semitism, murdering Jews was pure banditry."  There is a discussion going on about the identiy of J.T. Gross. Is he Polish , or Jewish. Danusia Goska on her  Bieganski the Blog says : Jan Tomasz Gross . As Polish as Pierogi. Unfortunatelly, pierogi are not Polish invention   but originally  from  China , or Russian  delicacy. So what about J.T. Gross? What he says about himself:” My identity as a Pole includes profound siding with the persecuted. A few have a better right than Poles to feel persecuted... We cannot base our self-identity on lies orhalfthruths.- (10. see:Jersalem report 10/31 2010, Myths and Thruths by  Eetta Prince-Gibson). “Our family was very assimilated. It would be presumptuous of me to say I’am Jewish. . I don’t know about Jewish traditions or holidays”.(ibidem). I remember similar confesion of Robert Murdach : I’m not Jewish, but… and he spoke on The JDL convention passionately. To be Jewish is not necessarly  to know  Jewish traditions. Is  Gross  a Pole?  For me not(M.B.).
  • Piotr Zychowicz, Oko w oko z tłuszczą, Rzeczpospolita, January 26, 2008 (Polish)
  • 2.       "Norman B. Tomlinson '16 and '48 Professor of War and Society. Professor of History". Princeton University History Department. Retrieved 2013-06-27. 3.       [1][dead link] 4.       Source: Davies: "Strach" to nie analiza, lecz publicystyka, Gazeta Wyborcza, January 21, 2008 (Polish) 5.       Postanowienie o umorzeniu śledztwa IPN, June 30, 2003 (Polish) 6.       Craig Whitlock, A Scholar's Legal Peril in Poland, Washington Post Foreign Service, Friday, January 18, 2008; Page A14 7.       Marek Jan Chodakiewicz: People’s past has to be reviewed critically on individual basis, Rzeczpospolita, January 11, 2008 (English) 8.       Piotr Gontarczyk, Far From Truth, Rzeczpospolita, January 12, 2008 (English) 9.       Ryan Lucas (January 24, 2008). "Book on Polish anti-Semitism sparks fury". USA Today. 10.   see:Jersalem Report 10/31 2010, Myths and Thruths by  Eetta Prince-Gibson.
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