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The traitors in1920 around Jedwabne:Attempted power grab

marian Baginski|Thursday, August 14, 2014

After the news of Tuchaczewskis’ troops success in July 1920, Lenin decided to start the process of creating a revolutionary power in the Poland. Convinced about the weakness of the Communist Polish workers ' Party, he has accepted the concept of a group of Polish Communists with Joseph Unszlicht at the helm, who offered to create a temporary Revolutionary Committee in Poland on the basis of the Red Army. At the same time, it was decided to mobilize more than 5,000 Polish Communists and flip them on the Western front line, 900 of whom  were directed to  the political apparatus of the Red Army, and the rest  it was supposed to be used to cast the revolutionary committees’ network administration.

The traitors of 1920 around Jedwabne;Attempted power grab
 After the news of Tuchaczewskis’ troops success in July 1920, Lenin decided to start the process of creating a revolutionary power in the Poland. Convinced about the weakness of the Communist Polish workers ' Party, he has accepted the concept of a group of Polish Communists with Joseph Unszlicht at the helm, who offered to create a temporary Revolutionary Committee in Poland on the basis of the Red Army. At the same time, it was decided to mobilize more than 5,000 Polish Communists and flip them on the Western front line, 900 of whom  were directed to  the political apparatus of the Red Army, and the rest  it was supposed to be used to cast the revolutionary committees’ network administration.  On 18 July 1920 Polish Propaganda Bureau meeting CK RKP (b) created Polish PPRC: Chairman-Felix Dzerzynski, the Secretary- Edward Próchniak, members: Julian Marchlewski, Feliks Yakovlevich Kon and Józef Unszlicht.  When they arrived in Poland they become a Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee. Kremlin gave them huge the amount of1 billion rubles for to organize revolutionary committees on the Polish lands. 29 July of the year1920   the Soviet troops invaded Białystok. The next day, while Marchlewski was in Vilnius, he completed work there on the text of the manifesto PPRC. His place of publication was not named Vilnius, where it was printed, but they named Bialystok. This town was reached by members of the "Government" on 2-5 August 1920.The authors of the manifesto called on the mass of workers to dispose of the capitalists and landlords, ad to create workers’ committees from local revolutionaries. PPRC members were unhappy that the Commander of the Red Army was ordered to print  the regulation, of this "Government" in both Polish and Jewish. They believed that Yiddish should be used  to print messages exclusively to the  Jewish population. In turn, members of Poale Zion-and Bund starting the protest against the PPRC which created a communal kitchen for children of Polish and Jewish, in which Jewish children not have kosher meat. The Jews have tried to master the "resort" of education. Irated Marchlewski  wrote: "it was wrong in this regard, that before the arrival of the Education Department PPRC was temporarily managed by Jewish nationalists, who caused a strange brewery. They wanted to introduce the Statute of the people's Commissariat of education from Russia, where it is provided for the existence of national minorities section.  So they wanted to arrange this same in Bialystok. Polish section suppose to be considered apparently here as this minority; If a majority in their opinion had to be Jews, they could have imagined that the majority language in their opinion will be considered as a Russian, or Yiddish. Sir. Feliks Kon, who, arrived from in New York he became education principal and energetically instructed these men, that they are wrong and declared them to use them for purposes to promulgate the  Jewish nationalism. " In July and August 1920, the revolutionary committees were created in all counties, cities, towns and villages on the conquered terytories. In total, the lands, which are considered by the Bolsheviks  to be  ethnically Polish,  there had been  founded nearly 150 different committees.  The offices and institutions removed the  marks  of Polish symbols and any of "bourgeois elements and of Jacques goudstikker." The main tasks of the rewkoms in the  municipal and rural areas were to provide transportation, food and grain for the Red Army.  They acted with all the ruthlessness to destroy Polish soldiers or any manifestations of resistance against the Bolshevik government. The Country side was involved in organizing the rewkoms   by many soviet officers. In addition to them in their composition there were Polish Communists found from Bolshevik Russia and, above all,  all the local Jews, mainly leaders of Poale Zion-Bund and-leftists. For example, Abraham Adler became Chairman of rewkom in Chorzele, and the Jews themselves entered in the rewkom in Lublin (Poland) (President-Herszberg, Vice President-Openheim(the daughter of Rabbi Epstein). Only the Jews were also in the composition of the rewkoms in Brańsk and Suchowola. Jew Wermund led rewkom in Bielsk Podlaski. Jewish Communists were the most visible in Zambrów’s Wyszkow’s rewkoms. On the initiative of Chaim Jug in Wyszkow it was a well-armed detachment, made up from Jewish youth. Commander of the Bolshevik troops entering the town were helped with a larger Jewish population to establish the communist power. The Jewish population   mastered knowledge of Russian language . Marchlewski wrote that Jews "greeted the  revolutionary Soviets , which will deliverer them  from maltreatment and disability", and Jewish youth was  "enthusiastic and hungry experience, not yet steeped in the spirit of  commerce, this young people constantly and violently repelled by Polish intelligence (..) The Soviet army encompassed all hopes and granting the revolution ". Organization of the rewkoms usually was accompanied by rallies and political gatherings, coupled with the "concerts" of local musicians. Speeches were given in Russian, Jewish, and Polish, and "speakers received flowers from an ad hoc designed Jewishesses." Rewkoms headquarters were usually "decorated “with propaganda posters, designed by Viktor Deni. The ' artist ' obtrusively depicted Poland in the form of animals, which was the highest expression of degradation. On the poster "the last dog of Entente" he presented a rabid dog with big mustaches and, with a pen in the Eagle Crown in the form of a Medallion around his neck. On another poster "pig farmed in Paris," showed the greasy pig sitting in the hands of the French. The animal had a moustache, his head was decorated with  a  confederation cap , the fallowing words can be seen  " The most venerated" Poland and  it grabs a document with the word "borders of 1772" Bolshevik propaganda showed Poles as oppressors of the Belarusians, Ukrainians, and Jews. The Poles were described in that  propaganda as landlords, capitalists, imperialists, exploiters, and finally “White Poles". On one of the posters Mayakovsky placed  such text: "Ukrainians and Russians have teamed up with the battle : let you never be over us!” As written by Józef Mackiewicz: "Peasant wagons were taken by Soviets forcibly (...) and replacing the carts of rolling stock. Farmers had less food, which was already lacking, and had less of spiritual support. The Bolshevik propaganda was in full swing. To carry out the political “awareness" among the Polish population, Soviet 15 army received 3.5 million rubles to spend for propaganda.
Although the Bolshevik soldiers distributed leaflets, and mobilizing their the last effort by saying “Your Poland dead! Only a few steps divides the Red Army from conquering  this noble country. From the blood of the nobility and the bourgeoisie it will grow up a red flower of the dictatorship of the proletariat! Forward heroes! In Warsaw! “At the same time, commanders have promised t when Warsaw will be captured every soldier receives a cash prize of 40,000 rubles, the Holy doors (sic!), and will have the right to loot for 2-3 days. The soldiers of the Bolsheviks accounted that in Warsaw, where "chocolate lies in the streets", and the shops are filled with food, shoes and clothing. They finally   will take all as a price for their  months of hardships and sacrifices. And yet, it's in Russia, and Bolshevik rule will create a paradise for workers and peasants! Soviets carry the obligation to provide "security and public order" and they will obediently created militia. Its members are going to be recruited from the Communists, servants, members of the Bund and Poale-Zion and former imperial soldiers. In Maków Mazowiecki, Masovian Voivodeship, Rozan ,Wyszkow and Terespol Jews in their entirely possessed the power in all its branches. Their duty was to "urgently work  and track working authority do not allow exploitation of the Red Army and the local population by speculators, diligently observe the mood of the masses and their relationship to the authorities, any insight malcontents  to communicate immediately". Another important task of the rewkoms was to disarm the bourgeoisie, and to arm workers. Workers ' troops, they were consisting mainly from Jewish youth, in Maków Mazowiecki, Masovian Voivodeship, inWyszkow, Kałuszyn and Siedlce. After the defeat of the Bolshevik army, network of rewkoms has been broken down, and some of their members fled to Bolshevik Russia. The Communists from Lukow retreated with a gun in his hand, fighting at the side of the Bolsheviks. Their Division was taken prisoner by the Polish cavalry.
Along with the members of the rewkoms and  the militia Jewish volunteers fled with Bolsheviks.Some of them, like from Siedlce, Sokołów Podlaski, Lukow Biała Podlaska, Zambrów and Białystok engaged to fight Poles. Troop detachment of Jewish volunteers with a gun in his hand they entered in Siedlce. During the battle of Różan Poles killed 17 Jews, who were helping the Bolsheviks. Members of the rewkoms from Lukow and Biała Podlaska had decided to defend the cities against units of the Polish Army.   At the end of August 1920 the military ad hoc court in Siedlce handeled to10 Jews the death penalty for fighting  the Polish Army. A group of 200 Jews   from Wyszkow fled to Ostrów Mazowiecki, and then they were brought by the Polish police to Wyszkow.,48 of them were accused of public cooperation with the Bolsheviks, and sent to Warsaw's prison. Military ad hoc courts, sentenced   in August and September 1920, 66 Jews including some Poles. Anti-Semitic repressions were widely discussed by Jewish newspapers around the world, which demanded to change death sentences to prison and rehabilitation for so called wrongly convicted. At the same time, Jews who messed their political calculation counting on Bolsheviks, had come to the belief that " Poland is not the worst country after all, on the contrary – well, and we enhance the fluid situation and to accommodate the greater tendency to fulfill their obligations towards the Polish Government." This happend in the neighbourhood of Jedwabne.
Selected literature: Documents and materials for the history of Polish-Russian relations t. 2-3
J. Szczepański-Polish Society in the fight against the Bolshevik onslaught
J. Szczepański-war of the 1920s in the region of Mazovia and Podlasie
T. Żenczykowski pseudonym "Kania"-Two committees of 1920. 1944. Poland in the plans of Lenin and Stalin
T. Teslar-Bolshevik Propaganda during the war of the Polish-Russian, 1920
J-Mackiewicz Left free  
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