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Holocaust Profiteers

C. Pogonowski|Thursday, July 16, 2009

A play about Jerzy Kosinski was written by Davey Holmes, its title is: "More Lies About Jerzy," It was reviewed in The Wall Street Journal. Mr. Kosinski wrote "The Painted Bird," a harrowing novel about his Jewish boy's childhood in Nazi occupied Poland the book was introduced to the American public as an autobiography. In reality it was not his childhood, as it turned out. The play was staged in the Vineyard Theatre in New York in 2001 about ten years after Kosinski's suicide.

In the play he is the swaggering antihero. Kosinski was a famous, "oh so macho" Polish-Jewish emigre whose memoir about the Holocaust was exposed as a fiction. "More Lies About Jerzy" seems to be a cartoon image as compared to the devious, deeply mysterious man who inspired the play. Jerzy Kosinski makes a spectacle of himself over and over again in "More Lies About Jerzy ," evoking his torments in the Holocaust in order to seduce women and silence his critics, fondly recalling his trips to sex clubs even striding about the stage dressed in nothing but a pair of colorful, skimpy briefs," the review tell us.

A lot was written about Jerzy Kosinski: Polish researcher Joanna Siedlecka, "Bed Black Bird" ("Czarny Ptasior," Marabut, CIS, Gdansk, Warsaw 1994.), The New York Times, Book Review of April 21, 1996 by Louis Begley and October 1996 and a review by D. G. Myers (entitled "A Life Beyond Repair," Books in Review) deal with "Jerzy Kosinski, A Biography" by James Park Sloan, (illustrated, 505 pp. New York: Dutton,1996). Myers starts by saying: "Since his suicide in 1991, the literary reputation of Jerzy Kosinski has continued to sink."

Kosinski's "Steps" won the 1969 National Book Award. The author fitted well into American sexual revolution with his "grisly violence and a sexuality bordering on the sadomasochistic." He confined to Dorothy Santillana, a senior editor at Houghton Mifflin, that his manuscript of the "Painted Bird" was "based on his experiences."

Summaries of BBC documentary "Sex, Lies and Jerzy Kosinski" were shown on CBC in Canada on Jan. 14, 1996 and reviewed in "The Globe and Mail" of Toronto and in "The Toronto Star" under the title: "The Passionate Eye: Sex, Lies and Jerzy Kosinski." The "Alert of Los Angeles" published in February 1995 an article entitled "Jerzy Kosinski - Liar and Ingrate."

After his suicide in 1991 a number of documentaries, articles and stage performances dealt with the person of Kosinski and his best- selling novels such as "The Painted Bird" and "Being There." Over thirty years earlier in the late 1950's, Jerzy Kosinski, as a recent immigrant started working in Manhattan as a parking lot attendant at "Kinney Rent a Car." Soon, however, he became a part of the literary scene in New York City and a frequent guest on late night talk shows of Johny Carlson. He played the role of Leon Trotsky, in Warren Beatty's "Reds."

Kosinski visited prominent Poles in Washington and tried to get them to give him useful blurbs for his first two books ("Future is Ours, Camarade" 1960, and "NoThird Path," 1962), which he wrote under the pen name of Joseph Nowak. He thought that his stories depicting the misery of life in Moscow and in the USSR in general would sell well in the USA entangled in the cold war against the Soviets. He was disappointed. His anti-Soviet books did not get any serious reviews and did not sell well. Kosinski's experience was a forerunner of the similar difficulties of another author, a sociologist, named Jan Tomasz Gross, whose literary activities are discussed below.

Kosinski's book "The Painted Bird" became a bestseller thanks to its pornographic content and revelations of sexual abuse of a Jewish Holocaust victim in occupied Poland. He presented the book to the publisher at the time when sexual revolution was promoted in America as a part of the culture war against the Catholic Church and its Legion of Decency. This culture war was also fought by the Hollywood moguls, who's purpose was to include pornography in their films.

"An Empire Of Their Own, How The Jews Invented Hollywood" by Neal Gabler (Doubleday, New York, 1988) was called "a pioneering work" by "The New Republic." In it Jews not only invented Hollywood but also controlled it ever since. The sexual revolution was supported by radical Jews, who like Herbert Marcuse, the father of the sex revolution in America, realized its power as a political weapon and a source of huge profits from the pornographic content in films and publications.

Pornography is a well proven weapon to disorient young people and break their ties with the older generations. The Bolsheviks used it extensively during their revolution. Radical Jews used it in the past to weaken morally and politically the majority in the countries of their residence. Before the war, for example, Cardinal Hlond fought against the spreading of pornography by Jews in Poland.

Kosinski realized that the acceptance of his new book would be strengthened by his assumption of a double identity. He was to be a victim of horrible sexual child abuse and also a victim of the Holocaust in Poland. "The Painted Bird" became a basic Holocaust text. "It was a best-seller and award-winner, translated into numerous languages, and required reading in high school and college classes" according to Norman G. Finkelstein (The Holocaust Industry" Verso, New York, 2000). Ellie Wiesel, the inventor of the use of the word "holocaust" was a great admirer of Kosinski. Wiesel used his new word to described the Nazi genocide of the Jews on the basis of Nazi attempt to kill all Jews within the territory occupied by them. As it happened the Hitlerites killed two thirds of the Jews of Europe and one third of world Jewry. To describe this tragic event Wiesel used the Greek word "holo kaustos" meaning "burnt whole" as a description of the Jewish tragedy. Miriam Webster's Dictionary covers with this term the mass slaughter of some twenty five to thirty millions of the unarmed European civilians during World War II. That is not, however, what the Jewish cult of the Holocaust needs. The radical Jews do not want to count gentile lost lives together with Jews and they refuse to recognize any non-Jews as "Holocaust survivors."

Jewish professional Holocaust survivor, Ellie Wiesel said that the Kosinski's "Painted Bird" changed his life. "It is as a chronicle that 'Painted Bird'...achieves its unusual power." Both authors had a lot in common. While Kosinski "analysed the new language", Wiesel wanted "to forge a new language" of the Holocaust.

Norman Finkelstein calls their endeavor "ruminations...of a charlatan" or an empty debate for which he quoted the Polish proverb: "From empty to vacuum." He compared Kosinski's book to a more recent fraud contained in Bejamin Wilkomirski's "Fragments," which I will discuss below. One could identify many more recent additions to this literary genre. For example, J. T. Gross's books "Upiorna Dekada" or - "The Ghastly Decade" (Universitas, Kraków 1994) and "Sasiedzi" or - "Neighbors" (Princeton University Press, 2001). In "Neighbors" the author claims that the Christian half of the town of Jedwabne, Poland, murdered the Jewish half, while Nazis tried unsuccessfully to save some of the Jewish victims. Gross's books "Ghastly Decade" and "Neighbors" belong to literary Holocaust profiteering discussed in greater detail below.

In the "Painted Bird," Kosinski claims that his parents worried about his welfare in wartime Poland in 1939, sent him to friends in Eastern Poland, while they remained in Lodz, hidden by Poles. After the war they found him in an orphanage unable to speak for three years. He describes in detail sexual abuse suffered by him and other Jewish children. He describes the disappearance of Lilka, a Jewish girl beaten and raped by a Polish farmer. He claims that Poles were putting out the eyes of Jews, drowning them, sexually abusing, and torturing them. Kosinski claims, by advertizing the book as his own autobiography, that he shared in the horrible experiences described by him.

Jerzy Lewinkopf Kosinski was six when the war started and twelve when it ended. Joanna Rostropowicz-Clark described Kosinski in her article "The Antihero of Our Time" (Przeglad Polski, New York, May 9, 1996;) she included, courtesy Jeane Kibourne, Kosinski's pictures at six and twelve. Both photos show a very happy and well nurished child, without any signs of maltreatment. Josek Jerzy Nikodem Lewinkopf Kosinski was born in Lodz in 1933. His father Mojzesz Lewinkopf was born in Zamosc in 1891 and was a buyer. His mother Elzbieta was born in Lodz in 1899. The Lewinkopfs changed their name to Kosinski and in 1940, moved with Jerzy to Sandomierz.

The notion that it was dangerous to be Jewish during the war caused Jerzy to feel self hatred and become so antisemitic that he did not want to play with Jewish children. He learned to recite Catholic prayers in Polish. The Lewinkopf Kosinski family changed address several times, but never entered the ghetto. At first they lived with other Jews in a Polish Catholic home; later they moved alone into another Polish home. They did not wear the Star of David on their clothes. After two years they moved to Dabrowa Rzeczycka (DR) near Radomysl, where lived Father Okon, Polish priest who helped many Jews.

In DR Jerzy was baptized and received Holy Communion in May 1943. Both, Mrs. Lewinkopf Kosinski and Jerzy had strikingly Semitic appearance. Despite of this fact Jerzy volunteered to serve as an altar boy and learned the Latin liturgy. He read Polish classical literature and started to study English, while his father worked as a middleman for the local farmers and had enough money to hire a maid. Kosinskis hanged in their rooms pictures of Jesus, the Holy Family,and Our Lady. Each time Jerzy received Holy Communion with other children his mother gave them a party and served cakes and cocoa, which was a rarity during the war. Mrs Lewinkopf Kosinski was always well dressed, made up, and manicured. She lived comfortably and did not need to cook and clean her house during the war. Kosinskis' life style contrasted with other Jews who had to hide in potato cellars, barns, etc.

Joanna Siedlecka describes the questionable character of Mojzesz Lewinkopf Kosinski. He dealt with German police and survived a number of meetings with Germans and had contact with local farmers and with members of the resistance movement Armia Krajowa (The Home Army, which fought for a free Poland). He also dealt with the communists underground.

People wandered what did Mojzesz give Nazis in exchange for his life that other local Jews, who perished, did not give. Mojzesz also claimed that he played chess with Soviet sponsored communists guerillas and did not spy for them, as the local Poles had suspected. When the Soviets occupied DR, on 28th of July, 1944, he openly worked for them, joined the communist party and paraded his small nephew Henio in a Soviet uniform. Mojzesz was often seen with officers of the NKVD. Soon his landlord was arrested, with all local soldiers of the clandestine Polish Home Army (AK); each of these men was known to Jerzy's father and each was denounced by him. Mojzesz Lewinkopf Kosinski managed to survive an attempt on his life by anti-communists, because he was away from home, traveling to Lodz.

When Kosinski's "Painted Bird" was translated into Polish, it was read by the people with whom the Lewinkopf family lived during the war. They were scandalized by the tales of abuse that never happened. They recognized names of Jewish children sheltered by them during the war - children who survived thanks to them, now painted as victims of their abuse. They were bitter and offended by Jerzy's ingratitude and obsession to slander them. Jewish girl Lilka was never mistreated by them and she never disappeared, as Kosinski claimed.

Kosinski's benefactors wrote letters to Polish papers exposing Jerzy Kosinski for the liar and ingrate he was. They did not realize just how much literary success and money Jerzy earned in America by claiming that he was a Holocaust survivor victimized by them. In reality he became a Holocaust profiteer, who profited by defaming the very people who saved his life.

Kosinski's book "Being There" was at first very successful. It was turned into a movie of the same name. However, eventually it contributed to his downfall, when his ghost writers rebelled against him. It became known that the whole concept and structure of "Being There" was copied from a Polish book written by Tadeusz Dolega Mostowicz (1898-1939), entitled "Kariera Nikodema Dyzmy" ("The Carrier of Nikodem Dyzma" 1932). Ironically, Dolega Mostowicz lost his life during the September 1939 campaign betrayed by Jews near the Polish-Romanian border. Professor Jerzy Robert Nowak established that Dolega Mostowicz was a quarter master and a reserve officer in the Polish army mobilized in 1939. Mostowicz realized upon crossing the border into Romania, that he could not get any supplies there. He returned across the border, and bought the necessary provisions for his men at a nearby market. When he was heading back towards Romania, local Jews pointed him out to a Soviet tank crew, which chased Mostowicz's truck, assumed a good shooting position, and killed Tadeusz Dolega Mostowicz and his driver with a shot of a tank cannon.

Jan Tomasz Gross acted much like Jerzy Kosinski. Gross, who's previous books were ignored by critics in the United States, now is basking in the limelights of publicity thanks to wild accusations against Poles under Soviet and German occupation.

Some years ago Professor Jan Tomasz Gross wrote a fairly well- documented book entitled "Revolution from abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia." In this work, published by Princeton University Press, Gross gave substantial evidence of the complicity of some Polish Jews in the murder of thousands of Polish Catholics by the Soviet forces, who occupied much of Poland in September of 1939, during the joint Soviet-Nazi invasion of that country. His extensively footnoted book was received with stony silence by the journals, which might have been expected to review it, from the professional quarterly Slavic Review to the New York Times. Indeed, Gross was essentially put in a state of hostile isolation by many persons in the literary and professional Slavic community.

Apparently Gross has now worked his passage back into "politically correct society" with his recent book "Neighbors," also published by Princeton University Press. Relying principally on recollections of a Polish-Jewish Communist official (Szmul Wasersztajn aka "Calka"), Gross has produced a thin argument to the effect that in 1941 Polish civilians from the village of Jedwabne drove 1600 Jews into a barn and burned them to death. The geometrical improbability of the dismal spectacle aside (the farmer who owned the barn owned only four acres and the barn was small), one wonders how such a scantily researched book can receive the instant cachets of the same journals which had simply ignored "Revolution from Abroad."

It appears that Gross, the New York sociologist, frustrated by his obscurity, became a full-fledged Holocaust profiteer. In the process Gross demonstrated an extraordinary hatred for the Polish people. He documented his hatred in two propaganda books: "Upiorna Dekada - The Ghastly Decade" (Universitas, Kraków 1994) and "Sasiedzi - Neighbors" (Princeton University Press, 2001).

In "Upiorna Dekada" Gross ignores the fact that death penalty for helping Jews was unique to wartime Poland and that the essence of the policies of the Nazi government at all times was the implementation of the doctrine of the Lebensraum, or German "living space." The aim of the Nazis was to seize Slavic lands and replace the Slavic population with what they considered "racial Germans." Thus, Poland was to be colonized by Germans and the Polish nation eradicated. For this reason the Nazis used every opportunity to kill Poles. One of the examples of this policy was the death penalty and summary execution of entire Polish families and immediate neighborshoods for helping Jews. At the same time, for example, in Denmark, which the Nazis did not intend to colonize, no one was executed for helping any of the few Jews, who lived there.

After the war Stalin exploited the Zionist movement in order to abolish the British Mandate in Palestine. In the process he created a window of opportunity, to use the words of Paul Johnson, for establishing the State of Israel. Stalin's purpose was to embitter the conflict between Arabs and Jews and to blockade the supplies of Arab oil to the West. Gross should know that Stalin's NKVD staged some fifteen pogroms in the postwar satellite states in order to evict hundreds of thousands of Jews to Palestine, where at a critical moment Stalin supplied them with Czech weapons free of charge. He also helped to inflame the hatred of the Muslim world against the United States. Unfortunately Stalin's strategy worked and deadly terrorism of Islamic fundamentalists is still with us long after the Soviet dictator is gone.

Meanwhile, Gross and his likes, fabricate a new and fake version of history. Gross falsifies quotations in order to make his points. On page 56 of "Upiorna Dekada" he changes the meaning of a quote in the diary of dr. Zygmunt Klukowski (Dziennik z lat okupacji Zamojszczyzny - A diary of the years of occupation of Zamojszczyzna). Gross insinuates that in October 1942 Poles murdered some 2300 Jews while the Nazis deported for execution 934 other victims from the same locality. His deception is achieved by omission of quotation marks ("nasi"); this changed the meaning of a crucial statement of the original diary, in which reference was made to locally stationed German gendarmes.

Gross hides the fact that the ethnic Poles considered German and Soviet invaders as equally dangerous, whereas many Jews were trying to find security on the side of the Soviets. The ethnic Poles were naturally preoccupied with saving their nation, which was exposed to massive executions starting two years before the genocide of the Jews begun. From the beginning of the war, the Nazis were committing mass murders on the Polish civilian population, especially throughout western Poland, newly annexed by Germany. Nazis brought with them lists prepared long before the invasion of Poland of people to be executed. The Soviet NKVD prepared a list of 25,700 people of the Polish leadership community all of whom were executed during the Spring of 1940. Mass execution of the Jews in Nazi gas chambers began two years later.

The Polish resistance movement was the largest in occupied Europe. In order to break the Polish resistance Nazi terror apparatus (1939-1945) and the communist security forces (1939- 1956) tortured more gentile Poles than any other European ethnic group. Jewish tragedy consisted of mass executions but did not involve massive hunt and tortur related to resistance activities.

Gross does not recognize the fact that helping Jews was also a part of the resistance against the Nazis. Illogically he makes an accusation out of the fact that more Poles were engaged in the armed resistance than in saving of the Jews. Outrageously Gross cites this fact as a proof of Polish anti-Semitism.

On the page 41 of "Upiorna Dekada Gross gives the following illogical title to one of his chapters: "On the fact that the prevailing Polish anti-Semitism also was the reason why the Poles who helped Jews were brutally and totally murdered by the Germans." Then on page 60 Gross writes "how was it that the people who sheltered Jews during the war, did not like to admit it after the war. (...) It was believed that anyone helping Jews got rich" and therefore could presumably be "robbed or repressed" for "breaking the local code of behavior." I know of no such "local code."

What Gross does not mention is the fact that often it was difficult to admit to one's neighbor that by sheltering a Jew one was risking one's neighbor's life without his knowledge; therefore, it was easier not to tell one's neighbor about the risk similar to a "time bomb" in form of a hidden Jew next door. For this reason many people did not celebrate the fact that the happy occasion that their hidden Jews have survived. The neighbors, who did not know about the presence of these Jews near them, would immediately realize that their life was put at risk without their knowledge or consent.

Poles and Jews were separated by the a cultural barrier described by Bashevis Singer. On every turn a Jew could be noticed because of his faulty use of the Polish language. At the same time for each Polish family stressed by the horrors of war there was one Jew that desperately needed help.

Polish gentiles could not save Jews any more than their own people. They could not prevent the killing of millions of Polish Christians and the Polish Nation itself faced genocide. It is difficult to find a Polish gentile family, which did not lose family members and close relatives under the Nazi and Soviet occupations.

Under the Soviet occupation there was a policy to nominate Jews to the most visible posts in the Communist terror apparatus. It happened on one hand because plenty of Jews volunteered for these positions and on the other because the Soviet government was shifting the blame to the Jews for Soviet crimes. Thus the Soviet deliberately aggravated the intra-ethnic relations by their policy of "divide and rule."

This perfidious Soviet policy did not facilitate a postwar admission that one risked one's and others' lives while sheltering the Jews who after the war became Soviet executioners in Poland. The widespread complicity of the Jews in the Soviet terror apparatus installed in Poland was considered to be a proof of Jewish lack of concern for the existence of a sovereign Polish nation.

The collaboration between the "Jewish committees" and the NKVD in the Soviet occupied Poland is well documented. Then, the last memory of Poland of many a Polish citizens before the door was slammed shut on a boxcar bound for Siberia was that of a Jewish militiaman slamming the door. (There was no similar collaboration between Polish Catholics and the Nazis for example.) However, the problem of Jewish collaboration with enemies is more complicated. Let us remember the fact that the last experience of Jewish victims in Poland, packed into boxcars bound for the gas chambers, was that of a Jewish ghetto policeman slamming shut the death car door. The film "Pianist" made recently by Polanski vividly shows these horrible scenes. It is a matter of record that an average Jewish policeman in the Warsaw Ghetto sent to gas chambers about twenty two hundred victims.

Recently, Jan Moor Jankowski MD, for 30 years a professor of forensic medicine of the New York University School of Medicine, stunned Gross on Feb. 6, 2003 with an attack on the credibility of "Neighbors." Professor Jankowski made a striking comparison of Gross's book with another Holocaust bestseller reviewed only a day before in the Wall Street Journal. The reviewed book, "Fragments" was written by Benjamin Wilkomirski who was an imposter. He claimed to be a Jewish "Holocaust survivor" when, in fact, he was not. The Wall Street Journal reviewer called the book a "coldly planned fraud" or a work of "a deranged man who actually believes the myths he has constructed for himself."

Dr. Moor Jankowski said that he has "the same opinion of Dr. Gross and his books. It was obvious that since J. T. Gross does not seem deranged "therefore his book is a fraud." Gross did not even attempt to rebut Dr. Moor Jankowski's statement in Gross's presence during a lecture and discusion at New York University. (It should be noted that Dr. Moor Jankowski was hailed in American and Polish media for helping Jews during WWII in Poland. He was decorated by the President of France for his Resistance activities and also received a medal from Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir for helping to organize the teaching of medicine in Israel. He is the only American member of the French Academy of Medicine.)

Like Gross's "documentary" bestseller, the book entitled "Fragments" (of Recovered Memories) by a Jewish orphan using the name of "Benjamin Wilkomirski" turned out to be fraudulent. For a time it was a widely acclaimed book. It was written by a Swiss Protestant, Bruno Doessekker, who pretended to be a Jewish orphan abused by Christians. Doessekker took advantage of the then fashionable in the United States court claims based on (mostly fraudulent) "recovered memories." However, the most important characteristic of the "documentaries" written by Gross, Doessekker, and Kosinski is their cynical exploitation of human suffering during WWII, including the genocide of the Jews.

The Wall Street Journal, Tuesday, February 5, 2002, p. A16, "Bookshelf" published a review properly entitled "Real Horrors, Phony Claims" It was a review of "A Life In Pieces," by Blacke Eskin, Norton, 251pages $25.95) written by Tom Gross, no relation to J.T. Gross.

The story of the man who called himself Binjamin Wilkomirski is as extraordinary as it is outrageous. It began with his memoir called "Fragments," in which he claimed to be a Jewish Holocust survivor who had suffered Dr. Josef Mengele's horrendous medical experiments as a child. Wilkomirski also described his terrible experiences at Majdanek, a concentration camp in German occupied Poland, and at Auschwitz, where he saw his father beaten to death.

"Fragments," published in Switzerland in 1995, was acclaimed a masterpiece, and soon became an international bestseller. Wilkomirski won the National Jewish Book Award for auto- biography, the Prix Memoire de la Shoah in France and the Jewish Quarterly Literary Prize in Britain. He also was given a cash award from the American Orthopsychiatric Association. His fame grew, and Wilkomirski received standing ovations throughout America, at public lectures organized by the U.S. Holocaust Museum. He was cited in newspapers as an authority on the Holocaust. Some compared him to Primo Levi. Professors of history assigned "Fragments" as obligatory reading to their students.

Suddenly he was exposed. The harrowing Holocaust memoir turned out to be written by an impostor - a gentile who had spent the war in a comfortable Protestant home in Switzerland.

Blake Eskin's "A Life in Pieces" is a thorough account of the "Fragments" swindle. By analyzing the story in detail, Mr. Eskin has given us a chance to revisit this episode of Holocaust profiteering and to understand how and why it happened not that the stories are easily understandable or pleasant.

The public doubts about "Fragments" (of March 1998) came from a reader who posted his review on Amazon.com. He is Michael Mills, a junior Australian government bureaucrat living in Canberra. He found dates in "Fragments" to be wrong and realized that some of Wilkomirski's "memories" of Majdanek appeared very similar to a fake testimony already published by child "survivor" of Buchenwald.

Daniel Ganzfried, an Israeli born Swiss writer, whose own father was in Auschwitz, looked into Wilkomirski's past, his school records, and even found his family photographs of the "Holocaust survivor" from as far back as 1946, taken in Switzerland, when Wilkomirski's "Fragments" placed him in Poland.

Wilkomirski wasn't his name at all: He was Bruno Grosjean, born to a single mother, a Christian, and adopted by his wealthy new family, the Doessekkers, near Zurich. Bruno Doessekker or "Wilkomirski" before he published "Fragments," was a clarinet player from Zurich, born on Feb. 12, 1941 (not in 1939), in Biel, Switzerland. Doessekker was aware of his real childhood and fought for and won a share of his birth mother's estate in 1981.

"Wilkomirski" dismissed Mr. Ganzfried's accusations and presented himself as a victim of an "anti Semitic plot" involving Swiss government officials. But other evidence of the fraud surfaced. Mr. Doessekker now faces criminal charges in Switzerland.

What about Mr. Doessekker's motives. Was he guilty of a "coldly planned fraud," or more charitably, is he simply a deranged man who actually believes his own myths? Why those who believed him came to be so easily fooled or were some of them also members of what Norman Finkelstein called the "Holocaust Industry." Were they "Holocaust profiteers" to use the term coined on the editorial page of The Wall Street Journal? Thus, Holocaust historian Daniel Goldhagen, highly praised the book and the director of the U.S. Holocaust Museum made "Wilkomirski" a guest of honor at a $150 per plate luncheon at New York's Carlyle Hotel.

The demand to debase the Polish people and to prepare them for a shake down by the Jewish restitution movement goes on because, besides of the Holocaust profiteers, honest people suspecting a fraud are afraid to speak up for fear of being accused of anti-Semitism.

Long forgotten are the large Polish contributions and sacrifices for the Allieds' victory, Poland was betrayed by Roosevelt and Churchill at Teheran and Jalta; it was handed over to become a Soviet satellite state, after ruthless pacification by communist terror apparatus disproportionally staffed with Jews.

During half a century of Soviet occupation the puppet communist regime made mockery of historical truth and justice, while following Moscow's order to enslave and degrade the Polish people. Now the Polish people are told to forget the communist crimes and honor Holocaust profiteers as was done with J.T. Gross by the Polish authorities and state controlled media staffed largely by former communist officials, the people who long ago developed instincts and habits of knowing "whom to lick and whom to kick." *)

It is interesting that Simon Wiesenthal said on his eightieth birthday: "I know what kind of role Jewish communists played in Poland after the war. And I as a Jew, do not want to shoulder responsibility for Jewish communists, I can not blame 36 million Poles for ... [wartime] extortionists.

Gross's seemingly documentary book, but in reality a fiction, is written in the language of Soviet propaganda. To publish this book while a formal legal investigation of the events is in progress and prior to the conclusions of such investigation - is most inappropriate and not fitting a publisher like Princeton University Press during the war are used by Holocaust profiteers in their fraudulent ego trips. These people, like Kosinski, Gross, and Wilkomirski are not interested in the truth but would like to make a name and money for themselves.

It is pertinent to quote Simon Wiesenthal who said on his eightieth birthday: "I know what kind of role Jewish communists played in Poland after the war. And I as a Jew, do not want to shoulder responsibility for Jewish communists, I can not blame 36 million Poles for those thousands of [wartime] extortionists." Gross's seemingly documentary book, but in reality a fiction, is written in the language of Soviet propaganda. To publish this book while a formal legal investigation of the events is in progress and prior to the conclusions of such investigation - is most inappropriate and not fitting a publisher like Princeton University Press.

I.C. Pogonowski, [Address], [Fax]
It was triggered off by a propaganda booklet entitled Neighbors written by New York sociologist J. T. Gross frustrated by his obscurity who in order to finally attract attention became a full-fledged Holocaust profiteer. In the process Gross demonstrated an extraordinary hatred for the Polish people. He documented his hatred in two propaganda booklets: Upiorna Dekada - The Ghastly Decade (Universitas, Kraków 1994) and S siedzi - Neighbors (Princeton University Press, 2001). In Neighbors he alleges that Polish neighbors murdered their Jewish neighbors while German Nazis tried to protect at least some of the victims. The booklet about events of 60 years ago is based on selected anecdotical reports manipulated to make it a thrilling horror tale - now a bestseller - a fiction passing for a documentary. Gross, who's previous books were ignored by critics in the United States, now is basking in the limelights of publicity thanks to wild accusations against Poles under Soviet and German occupation.

Jerzy Josek Nikodem Lewinkopf Kosinski and two other literary profiteers of the Holocaust

Sarasoa, Feb. 7, 2001
Mr. Terry Vaughn, Editor in Chief Princeton University Press
41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540
(Tel: (609) 258 2928; Fax: (609) 258 6305)

Re.: J.T.Gross: Neighbors (Sasiedzi, Sejny 2000)

Dear Mr. Vaughn: J.T.Gross entitled his new book The Neighbors (Sasiedzi, Sejny 2000). In it he tells the world that Polish neighbors murdered their Jewish neighbors while German Nazis tried to protect some of the victims. The book about events of 60 years ago is based on selected and anecdotical reports twisted to make it a thrilling horror tale - hopefully a bestseller - a fiction passing for a "documentary." It is to be published in English in April 2001 by Princeton University Press and widely covered by The New York Times before the current investigation, ordered by the Polish authorities, is completed and a definitive history of the events in Jedwabne is known.

Similar to Gross's "documentary book" two bestsellers were published earlier by other opportunists. One of them , "The Painted Bird" became a subject of Davey Holmes's new play "More Lies About Jerzy", in which fact and fiction tangle in a tale of self-invention and deceit. Jerzy Kosinski's harrowing childhood memoir about the Holocaust is exposed as a fiction written by a master con-artist and a sex-maniac "who knows how to manipulate people, especially women."

Another example of such "documentary" bestseller is a book entitled Fragments (of Recovered Memories) by a Jewish orphan using the name of "Benjamin Wilkomirski." It turned out that the widely acclaimed Fragments were in fact written by a Swiss Protestant, Bruno Doessekker, who pretended to be a Jewish orphan abused by Christians. Doessekker took advantage of the then fashionable in the United States court claims based on (mostly fraudulent) "recovered memories." However, the most important characteristic of the "documentaries" written by Gross, Doessekker, and Kosinski is the cynical exploitation of human suffering during WWII and the Holocaust.

There is no question in my mind that in 1945 authorities of a free Poland would have investigated the mass murders and deportations which happened in such localities as Jedwabne before and after the German attack on the USSR. People guilty of crimes would have been brought to justice. However, despite large Polish contributions and sacrifices for the Allieds' victory, Poland was betrayed by Roosevelt and Churchill at Teheran and Jalta; it was handed over to become a soviet satellite state, after ruthless pacification by communist terror apparatus disproportionally staffed with Jews. Thus, the puppet communist regime acted on Soviet orders and made mockery of justice while following Moscow's order to enslave and degrade Polish people. Now the Polish people are told to forget the communist crimes while the crimes committed during the inferno created by the Soviets and the Germans during the war are to be used in fraudulent ego trips by people who are not interested in the truth but would like to make a name and money for themselves.

It is pertinent to quote Simon Wiesenthal who said on his eightieth birthday: "I know what kind of role Jewish communists played in Poland after the war. And I as a Jew, do not want to shoulder responsibility for Jewish communists, I can not blame 36 million Poles for those thousands of [wartime] extortionists."

Gross's seemingly documentary book, but in reality a fiction, is written in the language of Soviet propaganda. To publish this book while a formal legal investigation of the events is in progress and prior to the conclusions of such investigation - is most inappropriate and not fitting a publisher like Princeton University Press.

Sincerely, Iwo C. Pogonowski
Tel.: [...]
(author of "Poland, An Illustrated History." Hippocrene
Books Inc., New York, 2000, "Jews in Poland, "
"Poland:A Historical Atlas," The Unabridged Polish-
English Dictionary of 200,000 entries and a number of
other dictionaries)
[Address]

Wladyslaw Poncet
Radio Journalist. Former News Chief
Polish Dept. of the Radio Free Europe
Publisher: Polonian Echo of Sarasota.
[Email]
Tel./Fax.: [...]

W..J. Wagner
Professor of Law
Author of 200 Books and Publications
Legal topicson the History of Law and other
Address [...]
Tel. [...]

Remarks by a historian about the book entitled Sasiedzi (Neighbors) by J.T.Gross

To the Editor of the
New York Times Book Review
8 West 30th Street
New York, NY 10001

Dear Sir
I read with great interest the book "Neighbors" of J. T. Gross, a New York sociologist. The book is more of an assay, than a book. The assay is full of basic mistakes, however it is disguised it as a historic work.

First of all, Professor Gross uncritically quotes the number of victims: it was impossible to burn as many as 1600 people in a town where the number of Jews in 1941 did not exceed 560, as Soviet records show and after the massacre of July 10, 1941,several hundred Jews were held by the Nazis in the ghetto near the market place in Jedwabne. After the war Soviet authorities for obvious reasons used the figure of 1600 because they tended to exaggerate the number of Nazi victims to overshadow their own crimes. No barn measuring some 20 by 50 feet could possibly contain 1600 people, even if they were tightly packed. The crime, as horrible as it was, was actually much smaller and its survivors much more numerous: some Jews managed to flee and some were hidden by their Polish neighbors. Eventually, most of the surviving Jews held in the ghetto were deported by the Nazi authorities to a concentration camp.

Most Western accounts of this massacre greatly diminish the controlling role of Gestapo in preparation and perpetration of this horrible crime. According to several witnesses, two days before the massacre, a platoon of the infamous "Einzatzgrouppe A"of highly trained murderers, arrived in Jedwabne, confiscated the barn, and used some 400 liters of gasoline to burn the Jewish victims after they were locked in it.

The Nazis were headed by Haupt Sturmfuerer Hermann Schaper, who later was sentenced by a German court to six years of prison. Thus, German center of investigation of the Nazi crimes in Ludwigsburg credits the massacre of Jedwabne to the Gestapo, while mentioning some participation of Nazi appointed mayor of the town, Mr. Karolak, who signed the "Volksliste" and was a "Volkdeutsche." Even execution of a few hundred victims requires a great deal of logistic preparation of which unarmed local people were utterly incapable.

The crime of Jedwabne followed a strict Nazi pattern of more than hundred similar terrible events that took place during the war between France trough Poland, Estonia, Romania, Belruss and Ukraine.

M. K. Dziewanowski
August 18, 2003
Professor of History
Author of : History of Soviet Russia, 5th edition, Prentice Hall, 1996
Address [...],
Fax [...]

To the Editor of the
Polonian Echo,
Sarasota, Florida 34236

Dear Sir:

J. T. Gross, although not a historian, made an attempt to write a book which is essentially a work of history. In doing so he has violated some of the basic principles of historic research. The crime was horrible, but Gross's book "Neighbors" distorts it.

1. He neglected to examine equally the depositions of all sides: Jewish, German, Soviet, and Polish. He based his conclusions almost exclusively on the accounts of just one Jewish witness of the crime, Szmul Wasersztajn who was a member of the communist secret police organization, the Office of Public Security (Bezpieka). Prof. Gross, a New York sociologist neglects completely German sources and quotes Polish ones only selectively. He claims to have experienced an "epiphany" listening to two second-hand accounts.

2. The author did not bother to go to Jedwabne to inspect the places where the crime was perpetrated and examine the surviving witnesses. Even a cursory glance at the local barns would show that all of them were too small to accommodate 1,600 people, allegedly burned in one of them.

3. Then there is the problem of the number of victims: according to one Soviet census there were no more than 560 Jewish inhabitants in Jedwabne at the beginning of 1941. Since that time, by July 1941, their number must have diminished considerably: many Jews who had actively collaborated with the NKVD and other communist authorities during the period of the Soviet occupation (Oct. 1939 - June 1941) fled together with the retreating Red Army; some Jews were hiding in the vicinity of the town, some were hidden by friendly Poles. The author gives an exaggerated number of victims to dramatize the effect of his story.

4. Prof. Gross completely neglects the role of the Nazis, while magnifying the role of the Poles. After all, the terrible crime in Jedwabne was committed within the program of Nazi government's terror apparatus. Nazis were planners, organizers and at least co-perpetrators of the massacre: they confiscated the barn in spite of the protests of the lawful Polish owner; they provided the gasoline that was then a commodity in short supply; they terrorized some of the Polish inhabitants of Jedwabne to take part in setting the barn on fire. Prof. Gross even admits that the Poles tried to hide them in their homes. Witnesses tell us that the streets were empty during the burning of the barn. How can one accuse the entire Polish population (spoleczenstwo) of Jedwabne of complicity in the crime?

5. The role of the Catholic Church in the whole affair is presented as tendentiously as the rest of the story; for instance Bishop Lukomski was not at home on the day when Jewish delegation from Jedwabne allegedly begged him for protection by offering silver candlesticks.

6. The cases of Jewish collaboration in Jedwabne with the Soviet army and especially the NKVD is minimized in the book. Prof. Gross almost completely ignores the evidence of large scale collaboration, the proof of which are to be found in the Anders Archives, readily available at the Hoover collection in Stanford, California. In view of the above, the book of Prof. Gross can not be considered as a serious scholarly work: it is rather a tendentious propagandistic pamphlet. He jumps to farfetched conclusions before examining the existing evidence.

M. K. Dziewanowski
Jan. 7. 2003
Professor of History
Author of : History of Soviet Russia, 5th edition, Prentice Hall, 1996
Address [...],
Fax [...]

Some years ago Professor Jan Tomasz Gross wrote a well-documented book entitled Revolution from abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia. In this work, published by Princeton University Press, Gross gave substantial evidence of the complicity of some Polish Jews in the murder of thousands of Polish Catholics by the Soviet forces who occupied much of Poland in September of 1939 during the joint Soviet-Nazi invasion of that country. This extensively footnoted book was received with stony silence by the journals which might have been expected to review it, from the professional quarterly Slavic Review to the New York Times. Indeed, professor Gross was essentially put in a state of hostile isolation by many persons in the literary and professional Slavic community.

Apparently Professor Gross has now worked his passage back into "politically correct society" with his recent Neighbors, also published by Princeton University Press. Relying principally on recollections of a Polish-Jewish Communist official (Szmul Wasersztajn aka "Ca ka"), Gross has produced a thin argument to the effect that in 1941 Polish civilians from the village of Jedwabne drove 1600 Jews into a barn and burned them to death. The geometrical improbability of the spectacle aside (the farmer who owned the barn owned only four acres), one wonders how such a scantily researched book can receive the instant cachets of the same journals which had simply ignored Revolution from Abroad.

There seems to be a pattern of alleging murders of Jews in areas of Poland, which shifted from Soviet to German control in June of 1941. The widespread collaboration of some Jews in fingering priests, schoolteachers, landowners, physicians, and other professionals (spoken of by Gross in his earlier works) certainly led to retribution against the guilty during Soviet withdrawals. This does not translate into genocidal pogroms which were staged by the Germans. That the Polish Underground Army did retaliate against collaborators either with the Nazis or the Soviets is not denied. That innocent perished with the guilty in such retaliations is commonplace in wartime conditions. But for anyone to mistake such retaliations as anti-Semitic rage whenever the collaborators were Jews is simply absurd. Furthermore, nobody denies that there were evil individuals in the Polish population who did murder Jews during the War. But they carried out their crimes understanding that they were explicitly forbidden by the Polish Underground government and carried the death sentence from that government.

In Israel, within a short walk of the Yad Vashem memorial to Jewish victims of the Holocaust, is the site of Deir Yassin, where the Stern Gang/Irgun activists of Yitsak Shamir and Menachem Begin (later Prime Ministers of Israel) slaughtered all the men, women and children in the unfortunate Arab village on April 9, 1948. This is an example of an organized atrocity against civilians committed by an official national body. Nothing like that was ever carried out by any official organization of Polish Catholics during the horrific years of World War II (in which over three million Polish Catholics died at both Soviet and German-Nazi hands).

Jedwabne and International Apologies

by Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski
Blacksburg, April,12,01

President Bush handled adroitly the assumption of responsibility for the recent air accident in response to Chinese demands for an apology. It should be a timely example for Poland's president A. Kwa niewski because, strangely enough, at this time an apology-mania is spreading among politicians in Poland. It was triggered off by a propaganda book entitled Neighbors written by New York sociologist J. T. Gross frustrated by his obscurity who in order to finally attract attention became a full-fledged Holocaust profiteer. In the process Gross demonstrated an extraordinary hatred for the Polish people. He documented his hatred in two propaganda booklets: Upiorna Dekada - The Ghastly Decade (Universitas, Kraków 1994) and S siedzi - Neighbors (Princeton University Press, 2001). In Neighbors he alleges that Polish neighbors murdered their Jewish neighbors while German Nazis tried to protect at least some of the victims. The booklet about events of 60 years ago is based on selected anecdotical reports manipulated to make it a thrilling horror tale - now a bestseller - a fiction passing for a documentary. Gross, who's previous books were ignored by critics in the United States, now is basking in the limelights of publicity thanks to wild accusations against Poles under Soviet and German occupation. The case in point is a massacre of Jews in the town of Jedwabne where in Dec. 1940 the NKVD registered 562 Jews. In Summer of 1941 Germans entered Jedwabne and brought with them Polish-speaking ethnic Germans to serve as Gestapo controlled new town administration that would replace their Soviet predecessors. On July 10, 1941 German police and military helped by the new mayor conducted a horrible massacre of some of the local Jews by burning many of them in a small barn. The reminder of local Jews was locked up in a new ghetto created near the marketplace. After the war an officer of the Soviet terror apparatus ordered to inscribe on a marker on the site of the massacre that 1600 Jews were burned in the barn by the Germans. Uncritically, Gross accepts this number even though it has been established that the Soviets multiplied the number of Nazi victims (Auschwitz for example). The Soviets had a policy to overstate the number of people killed by the Germans, perhaps to hide the number of victims of their own postwar executions during the creation of the satellite states in central Europe.

Gross dedicated his book to Szmul Wasersztajn, who was a member of communist secret police under the NKVD and used the name "Ca ka," according to the Catholic Information Agency (KAI, Warsaw, 2,28,01). Several versions of Wasersztajn's dairies are on record. In them he depicts the tragedy of Jedwabne on the basis of hearsay as he himself only heard wilde tales about the tragic events and did not see any of them hiding in another location. Gross describes a soccer game played by local Poles by using freshly cutoff bleeding head of a Jewish victim. There is no evidence that any such horrible event ever happened in Jedwabne. It was rejected together with the entire Wasersztajn diary by the NKVD supervised communist court after the war during the ten years of Stalinist terror when Jakub Berman and Goldberg-Ró a ski headed the terror apparatus in Warsaw. Thus, Gross's narrative, almost exclusively refers to communist prosecutors' files prepared after the war and he describes Polish resistance as "bands." However, even communists political police, in contradistinction to Gross, considered the Wasersztajn's depositions worthless for their show-trial of Polish anti-communists in Jedwabne. During the chaos of war, just as during riots, floods, or hurricanes some people rob and commit such criminal acts as looting and murder. In this respect wartime Poland does not differ from the United States. However, no one considers such acts to be American national crimes. Gross tries to make such criminal behavior into Polish national responsibility. One has to bear in mind that there was no free Poland in 1945. The communist judicial process was used as a tool for enslaving and degrading Polish patriots including the Catholic clergy and former Polish inmates of Auschwitz and other German camps. All political trials were supervised by the NKVD. In his earlier publication, Gross documented the prevalence of Jews in the employed by the NKVD in Poland. Therefore, it is pertinent to quote Simon Wiesenthal who said on his eightieth birthday:"I know what kind of role Jewish communists played in Poland after the war. And I as a Jew, do not want to shoulder responsibility for Jewish communists, I can not blame 36 million Poles for those thousands of [wartime] extortionists." Typically no Jewish survivor of the war has been tried in the courts in Israel no matter how terrible crimes he might have committed in Europe during or immediately after the war. Who is to express regrets for the collaboration between the "Jewish committees" and the NKVD in Soviet occupied Poland? Then, the last memory of Poland by many a Polish citizens before the door was slammed shut on a boxcar bound for Siberia was that of a Jewish militiaman slamming the door. (There was no similar collaboration between Polish Catholics and the Nazis for example.) However, the problem of an apology by the Jews for collaboration is more complicated. Let us consider the fact that the last experience of Jewish victims in Poland packed into boxcars, bound for the gas chambers, was that of a Jewish ghetto policeman slamming shut the death car door. It is a matter of record that an average Jewish policeman in the Warsaw Ghetto sent to gas chambers about twenty two hundred victims. In this tragedy what kind of an act of contrition is due and by whom?

So far Polish Catholics do not seek reparations, moral or financial, from Jews. They hope that mutual respect can replace the rather counterproductive charge and countercharge pattern which the propaganda pamphlet The Neighbors, by J. T. Gross, engenders. Enough is definitely enough. In 1939 Poland defended its freedom and refused to join either Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union. Poland suffered an inferno created by German Nazis and by the Soviets who's terror apparatus stayed on Polish soil for 45 postwar years.. Mutual transgressions within Poland's population took place. Today full reconciliation requires each ethnic and religious group in Poland to adhere to the principle : We forgive and we ask for forgiveness. That goes equally for Poles, Ukrainians, Germans, Belorussians, Catholics, Protestants, Uniates, and Jews. Jewish refusal to share fully and sincerely in this commitment will result in protracted antagonism and an opportunity for those who exploit the suffering inflicted by the Nazi Germans and the Soviets and turn this suffering into a profitable business and an opportunity for cynical ego trips.

Already on April 19, 1996 the real estate tycoon Rabbi Israel Singer, General Secretary of the World Jewish Congress stated that More than three million Jews died in Poland and the Polish people are not going to be the heirs of the Polish Jews. We never going o allow this. (...) They're gonna hear us until Poland freezes over again. If Poland does not satisfy Jewish claims it will be publicly attacked and humiliated in the international forum. By now a number of class-action suits against Poland was filed in American courts which have no jurisdiction over Poland. These suits generate anti-Polish propaganda, such as Gross's recent writings.

Attention is not paid in the Holocaust studies to the fact that from the Fall of 1939 to the Summer of 1941 the Soviets murdered much greater number of Polish citizens than did the Nazi Germans at the same time. Polish Jewish intelligentsia deported to the USSR reported that the main source of NKVD knowledge about the Polish citizens in the newly occupied Poland was based on information from leftists mainly of Jewish background. In fact there is a general belief in Poland that with such source of information the Soviets were able to arrest five times more people than the would have without the help of these leftists.

The shear number of Jews in Poland created such a situation under the Soviet occupation, during and after the war, that Jews were both victims and victimizers. Thus behavior of Jews towards Christians is an important component of the history of WWII and its aftermath.

The independance of Poland was supported mainly by Polish Christians. In 1918 all international Jewish organizations opposed creation of an independent Polish state.

Objectivity rather than an accusatory stance against Christians in general would help the efforts of reconciliation. The principle that people are to be considered innocent until proven guilty should be honored in Holocaust studies as much as it is supposed to be in the United States today. Unfortunately Poland is treated as a negative background of the Holocaust and Holocaust profiteering aggravates this predicament. No country has as bad a press in the USA as Poland and its people are experiencing at present. Even Palestinian representatives are occasionally permitted on American TV. No objective Polish representatives are permitted to give honest Polish perspective on Holocaust, WWII, or any subjects that is of interest to the Jews and their liberal friends who control the discourse in American media.

On PBS at 8pm EST on Holocaust program following statement was used: In 1942 Cyclon gas was used in Polish extermination centers.

Some years ago Professor Jan Tomasz Gross wrote a well-documented book entitled Revolution from abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia. In this work, published by Princeton University Press, Gross gave substantial evidence of the complicity of some Polish Jews in the murder of thousands of Polish Catholics by the Soviet forces who occupied much of Poland in September of 1939 during the joint Soviet-Nazi invasion of that country. This extensively footnoted book was received with stony silence by the journals which might have been expected to review it, from the professional quarterly Slavic Review to the New York Times. Indeed, professor Gross was essentially put in a state of hostile isolation by many persons in the literary and professional Slavic community. Apparently Professor Gross has now worked his passage back into "politically correct society" with his recent Neighbors, also published by Princeton University Press. Relying principally on recollections of a Polish-Jewish Communist official (Szmul Wasersztajn aka "Ca ka"), Gross has produced a thin argument to the effect that in 1941 Polish civilians from the village of Jedwabne drove 1600 Jews into a barn and burned them to death. The geometrical improbability of the spectacle aside (the farmer who owned the barn owned only four acres), one wonders how such a scantily researched book can receive the instant cachets of the same journals which had simply ignored Revolution from Abroad.

In 1939 Poland defended its freedom and refused to join either Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union. Poland suffered an inferno created by German Nazis and by the Soviets who's terror apparatus stayed on Polish soil for 45 postwar years.. Mutual transgressions within Poland's population took place. Today full reconciliation requires each ethnic and religious group in Poland to adhere to the principle : We forgive and we ask for forgiveness. That goes equally for Poles, Ukrainians, Germans, Belorussians, Catholics, Protestants, Uniates, and Jews. Jewish refusal to share fully and sincerely in this commitment will result in protracted antagonism and an opportunity for those who exploit the suffering inflicted by the Nazi Germans and the Soviets and turn this suffering into a profitable business and an opportunity for cynical ego trips.

Already on April 19, 1996 the real estate tycoon Rabbi Israel Singer, General Secretary of the World Jewish Congress stated that More than three million Jews died in Poland and the Polish people are not going to be the heirs of the Polish Jews. We never going o allow this. (...) They're gonna hear us until Poland freezes over again. If Poland does not satisfy Jewish claims it will be publicly attacked and humiliated in the international forum. By now a number of class-action suits against Poland was filed in American courts which have no jurisdiction over Poland. These suits generate anti-Polish propaganda, such as Gross's recent writings.

So far Polish Catholics do not seek reparations, moral or financial, from Jews. They hope that mutual respect can replace the rather counterproductive charge and countercharge pattern which the propaganda in The Neighbors, by J. T. Gross, engenders. Enough is definitely enough.
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